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Chap. 3 Genetics: The Science of Heredity

Prentice Hall Life Science - Science Explorer Vocabulary

traita characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes
hereditythe passing of traits from parents to offspring
geneticsthe scientific study of heredity
purebreadan organism that always produces offspring with the same form of a trait as the parent
genea segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
allelea different form of gene
dominant allelean allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
recessive allelean allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
hybridan organism that has different alleles for a trait: an organism that is heterozygous for a particular trait
probabilitythe likelihood that a particular event will occur
Punnett squarea chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
phenotypean organism's physical appearance or visible traits
genotypean organsim's genetic makeup, or allele combination
homozygoushaving 2 identical alleles for a trait
heterozygoushaving 2 different alleles for a trait
codominancea condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive
sperma male sex cell
egga female sex cell
meiosisthe process that occurs in sex cells(sperm & egg) by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half
messenger RNARNA that copies the coded message from DNA in the nucleus ans carries the message into the cytoplasm
transfer RNARNA in the cytoplasm that carries an amino acid to the ribosome and adds it to the growing protein chain
mutationa change in a gene or chromosome

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