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Matter and Energy

AB
organic shemistrystudy of Carbon compounds
inorganic chemistrystudy of non-carbon compounds
physical chemistrya blend of physics and chemistry
biochemistrya blend of biology and chemistry
analytical chemistryconcerned with the identification of matter
qualitativewhat
quantitativehow much
scientific methodlogical approach to the solution of a problem
experimentobservations carried out under controlled conditions
observingcollection of data about a phenomenon
generalizingorganization of data and formulation of relationships
theorizingan educated guess
testingestablishment of soundness of the theory
matteranything that occupies space and has mass
massthe measure of the quantity of matter an object possesses
weightthe measure of the pull of gravity on an object
solidhas a definte shape and a definite volume
liquiddefinite volume but no definite shape
gasneither definite volume nor a definite shape
plasmathe fourth state of matter composed of electrons and positive ions at temps. exceeding 5000C
elementa substance which can not be broken down into other substances by ordinary chemical means
atomsmallest part of an element
compounda substance composed of two or more elements chemically combined in a definite proportion by mass
moleculethe smallest part of a covalent compound
Lavoisierfather of chemistry
heterogeneous mixturea material composed of two or more elements and/or compounds not chemically combined
homogeneous mixtureAKA solution, a materila consisting of a solute dispersed uniformly in a solvent
solutedissolved material
solventdissolving material
heterogeneousnon-uniform distribution of particles
homogeneousuniform distribution of particles
materialanother term for matter
substancea spcific type of matter which always has the same composition
natural elementselements 1-92
synthetic elementselements 93-?
metalssubstances which have luster, conduct heat and electricity, ductile, and malleable
nonmetalssubstances which are poor thermal and electrical conductors and are too brittle
metalloidssubstances having properties of both metals and nonmetals
symbolsrepresents not only the element but also stands for one atom of that element
physical propertiesthose which can be determined with causing a change in the identity of a material
extensive propertiesdepend on the amount of material present
intensive propertiesdepends upon the nature of the material itself
chemical propertiesthose which describe the behavior of a material in reactions that alter its identity
physical changethose in which the identifying properties of a material remain unchanged, only physical properties altered
chemical changethose in which different materials with new properties are formed
endothermic reactionheat energy absorbed
exothermic reactionheat energy liberated
potential energyenergy of position
kinetic energyenergy of motion
law of conservation of mattermatter can neither be created nor destroyed
law of conservation of energyenergy can neither be created nor destroyed
definitiona measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a material


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