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The Foundations of Chemistry

Chem1211 Chapter one vocabulary and basic concepts

AB
chemistrythe science that describes matter- its properties, the changegs it undergoes, and the energy that accompany those processes
organic chemistrystudy of compounds of carbon and hydrogen (all living things)
inorganic chemistrystudy of substances that do not have carbon and hydrogen
analytical chemistryconcerned with qualitave analysis and quantitive analysis
qualitive analysisthe detection or identification of substances present in a sample
quantitave analysisconcerned with the amount of substances in a sample
physical chemistry the application of mathematical theories and the accompanying energy changes
biochemistrythe study of the chemistry of processes in living organisms
matteranything that has mass and occupies space
mass the measure of the quantity of matter in a sample
energythe capacity to do work or to transfer heat
kinetic energyenergy of motion
potential energyenergy an object pocesses based on its position, condition, or composition
exothermic processesprocesses that release energy
endothermic processesprocesses that absorb energy
Law of Conservation of Matterthere is no observable change in the quantity of matter during a chemical reaction or during a physical change
scientific (natural) lawA general statement based on the observed behavior of matter to which no exceptions are known.
Law of Conservation of Energyenergy cannot be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction or in a physical change. It can only be converted from one form of energy to another.
E=m(c^2)A formula that states the relationship between matter and energy.
Law of Conservation of Matter and EnergyLaw that states that the combined amount of matter and energy in the universe is fixed.
solidState of matter that is rigid, responds little to heat and pressure, and can be crystallized.
liquidState of matter that flows, assumes the shape of the container, and only responds slightly to heat and pressure.
gasState of matter that is much less dense than liquids or solids, fills any container completely, expands infinitely, and is easily compressed.
chemical propertiesProperties that are related to the kinds of chemical changes that a substance can undergo.
physical propertiesProperties that can be observed without any change in a substances compostition.
extensive propertiesProperies that depend on the amount of material examined.
intensive propertiesProperties that do not depend on the amount of material examined, including all chemical properties.
three characteristics of chemical changes1) one or more substances is used up (at least partially) 2) one or more new substances is formed 3) energy is absorbed or released
mixturesCombinations of two or more pure substances in which each substance retains its own composition and properties.
heterogeneousA mixture which is not uniform throughout.
homogeneous mixture (solution)A mixture with uniform properties throughout.
alloysHomogeneous mixtures of metals at solid states.
properties of mixtures1) the composition can be varied 2)eaach component of the mixture retains its own properties
(pure) substanceCannot be further broken down or purified by physical means, having specific and original properties.
compoundA substance that can be decomposed by chemical means into 2 or more different elements in a fixed ratio.
elementA substance that cannot be deomposed into simpler substances by chemical means.
Law of Definite Proportions (Law of Constant Composition)Different samples of any pure compound contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass.
symbolsAbbreviations that represent elements.
SI unit for lengthmeter (m)
SI unit for masskilogram (kg)
SI unit for timesecond (s)
SI unit for electric currentampere (A)
SI unit for temperaturekelvin (K)
luminous intensitycandela (cd)
amount of substancemole (mol)
SI prefix meaning 10^6mega- (M)
SI prefix meaning 10^3kilo- (k)
SI prefix meaning 10^-1deci (d)
SI prefix meaning 10^-2centi (c)
SI prefix meaning 10^-3milli (m)
SI prefix meaning 10^-6micro (u [Gk "mew"])
SI prefix meaning 10^-9nano (n)
SI prefix meaning 10^-12pico (p)
massMeasures the quantity of matter in an object.
weightMeasures the gravitational attraction of the earth on an object.
1 Liter1 dm^3, 1000 cm cm^3
1 mL1 cm^3
1 A (Angstrom)10^-10 m
exact numbersNumbers that are obtained by counting or from definitions, containing an infinite number of significant figures.
accuracyRefers to how closely a measured value agrees with the correct value.
precisionRefers to how closely individual measurements agree with one another.
systematic errorError repeated in each measurement during an experiment.
dimensional analysis, factor-label method, unit factor methodPractice of multiplication by unity, or "one".
unit factorsTerms that describe the same or equivalent "amounts" of the subject considered.
1 in2.54 cm
1lb454 g
1L1.06 qt
densitym/V
specific gravityThe density of a substance divided by the density of water (no units).
density of water1.00 g/mL
TemperatureA measurement of the intensity of heat.
HeatA form of energy that always flows from a hotter body to a colder body.
developer of Celsius scaleAnders Celsius was a Swedish astronomer, who lived in the early 18th century.
developer of Fahrenheit scaleGabriel Fahrenheit was a German instrument maker who lived in the late 17th century and early 18th century.
SI unit for energy and workjoule (J)
definition of joule1 kg x m^2/s^2
definition of kinetic energy (KE)1/2 x m x v^2 (where v is speed, or velocity)
amount of energy required to raise the temperature of water form 14.5*C to 15.5*C4.184 J
kilocalorie, 1000 calories4.184 J
specific heatThe amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree Celsius with no change in phase.
formula for specific heat(amount of heat in J) / ( (mass of substance in g) x (temperature change in *C) )
units for specific heatJ/(g x *C)
heat capacityThe amount of heat required to raise its the temperature of a substance 1*C.
units for heat capacityJ/*C
significant figuresDigits that indicate the precision of measurements; digits of a measured number that have uncertainty only in the last digit.


Emily Pritchett

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