edhd320 Helen or Fives
University of Maryland  
May 16, 2000

The end is near!! The final practice quiz is up, short and sweet, I hope. Use the questions as a guide for the information to know for the quiz on Tuesday.



FINAL 3 Presentations
Course Evaluations


Come Chat, Share your obituaries...

OK, now I need to write my paper.

May 5, 2000
Note to come soon...I hope, if not...COME TO CLASS!


Some folks are missing papers, I need them and am marking them late every day I wait...this will only hold up your own grade, because anything not turned in on time will not be returned in a timely manner...sorry.

Presentations, should last no longer than 8 minutes, have a friend in the class time you. Your presentaion doesn't have to cover your entire paper, just the highlights!

Also, course evals need to be completed by a large number of students, so come to class complain about me all you want :).

There has been the suggestion that we have a small celebration on the last day of class...any takers?


Mike Adami, has done a web page for his presentation...go check it out..the links at the bottom of the page.

A sample quiz is in the works for ch 7 stay tuned!


If anyone is planning on taking the exam let me know as soon as you can.


If you've done any extra credit this semester let me know via email or on your folder so I can be sure to give it to you.

April 20
New quiz is up...labeled quiz 7 instead of 6; i'm not sure why...maybe wishful thinking.  Think of me on Mon. at 4 when i'm giving my big presentation...hopefully no one will ask me any questions, i'm not so efficacious about my ability to make up the answeres!

Enjoy the day off!



Webster’s (1992) – n. causative factor; incentive; drive

Goals of Achievement Motivation Theorists

  • Stipek (1993) – explain the initiation, direction and intensity of an individual’s behavior in situations in which performance can be evaluated

  • Wigfield & Eccles (1992) – explain people’s choice of achievement tasks, persistence on those tasks and vigor in carrying them out.

Attribution Theory – Weiner (1974-1986)

How an individual explains his/her success

Locus of Control (Causality)

  • Internal – individual is personally responsible for what happens to them

  • External – individual believes that the outcomes are dependent on luck, fate or the actions of others

Locus of Causality and Stability


  • Internal

  • Stable


  • Internal

  • Unstable

Task Difficulty

  • External

  • Stable


  • External

  • Unstable

Mastery Oriented vs. Helpless Achievement Styles
Orientation       Mastery               Learned Helplessness
             Want Challenge,           Avoid challenge,
             Persist after failure,    quit quickly,there's
             Belive effort pays off    little one can do

Ability:       Incremental                Entity

Classroom Goal: Learning                 Performance

Attribution      High                      Luck
for Success:    Ability                 (high effort)

Attribution       Low                      Low
for Failure:     Effort                  Ability

Reaction         Try                      Give up
to Failure      Harder

Self-Efficacy – Bandura

Judgements of an individual’s capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances

Contributors to Self-Efficacy

  • Experience

  • Vicarious Experience – models

  • Verbal Persuasion
  • Physiological Cues

Bandura’s Difference:  

Outcome Expectancy vs. Efficacy

Others’ Definitions and Difference:

Expectancy   vs. Efficacy

(Wigfield/Eccles) (Bandura)

General Specific

How good am I at X? Can I do X?


Expectancy-Value – Wigfield & Eccles

Theory incorporates what an individual expects to occur as well as the value he/she has for the outcome.

Achievement Value = relative attractiveness of succeeding on a given achievement task

Focus – the social psychological reasons for peoples’ choices in achievement settings

4 Types of Achievement Values

  • Attainment value:  importance of doing well on task; this performance is a reflection of his/her self schema

  • Intrinsic value:  interest or enjoyment in the task

  • Utility value:  usefulness of task toward accomplishing some other goal

  • Cost:  what is given up or the negative components of task engagement

I'm not sure what the dates should be but here are the notes from the past few classes in reverse order, that is the newest are first.  I hope to have something up for this week's classes, but my first priority is to get the practice quiz done... Unfortunately I have 2 big projects due on Wednesday, so I don't see much happening until those are turned in.  See you in class on Tues!

Chapter 13b

More Social

Parten (1932): Types of Play

Unoccupied – rare at all ages

Solitary Playdecreases with age but remains important

Onlooker Play – rare at all ages

Parallel Play – decreases with age

Associative Play

More common with age

Cooperative Play

More Imaginative

  • Pretend Play

  • Social Pretend Play

More Rule-Governed

Good Play? Play Good.

  • Contributes to all areas of development

  • Adaptive function:  Prepares young for adult life

  • Pretend:  better cognition; language skills; creativity

  • Social Pretend:  Increased popularity; social maturity

  • Emotional development: Practice feelings, master conflicts

Social Status:

    • Popular

    • Rejected

    • Neglected

    • Controversial

What’s Popular?

    • Attractiveness

    • Academic skills

    • Social Competence


    • 9-12

    • need at least one

Meaning for Children

    • Common activities

    • Mutual loyalty

    • Psychological similarity

Peers Impact on Development

    • Social Skills

    • Emotional well being

    • Cognitive growth

    • Acceptance & Self-esteem

Who’s Who?

  • Cliques – small friendship groups

  • 1st Same sex cliques

  • 2nd Members of opposite sex cliques begin to interact more frequently

  • 3rd Heterosexual Clique – formed by most popular girls & boys

  • Crowds – larger friendship groups

  • Include up to 4 cliques

  • Crowd membership = big impact on self image

  • Dating -The end of the crowd

  • Mainly sources of companionship vs. love and security

  • Integrates the needs for security, intimacy and sexual gratification


  • Mutual Intimacy & Self-Disclosure

  • Psychological Similarity: interest, attitudes, values, personalities

  • Gender Differences

  • Girls:  intimate friendships earlier

  • Boys:  less emotionally intense; talk less about feelings

  • Cross-sex Friendships

  • Increase intimacy and sharing with age

  • Girls report more intimacy overall



Peers:  social activities and tastes

Parents:   educational/Vocational plans & values


  • Socioemotional Selectivity Hypothesis

  • Friends:  equity

Romantic Relationships

  • Partner selection

  • Background

  • Complementary

  • Readiness

  • Adult Attachment

  • Secure:  like self, like others; willing to take a chance

  • Preoccupied:  don’t like self, like others; become overdependent

  • Dismissing: like self, don’t trust others; Islands

  • Fearful: don’t like self or others; Confusing – needy and withdrawn

Relationships and Development

  • Quality – most correlated with well-being

  • Confidants – need at least one!







Chapter 13a

Attachment Theory

Attachment Theory

John Bowlby (1969, 1973, 1980, 1988)

Mary Ainsworth (1989)

Theory:  combination of Ethnological theory (focus on species wide behavior) and psychoanalytic theory.

Attachment:  Strong affectional tie that binds a person to an intimate companion.  

Throughout the life span, the objects of our attachments are special irreplaceable people with whom we are motivated to maintain proximity and from whom we derive a sense of security. (Ainsworth, 1989)

Caregiver’s Attachment to Infant

  • Infant Characteristics

  • Synchronized Routines

  • Adult Troubles Responding to Infants

  • Broader Social Context

Phases of Attachment Development

  • Undiscriminating social responsiveness

  • (birth to 2-3 months)

  • Any person will do; no specific preference

  • Discriminating social responsiveness

  • Any person will do; no specific preference

  • (2-3 months to 6-7 months)

  • Preference for familiar people

  • Active proximity seeking/True attachment

  • (6-7 months to 3 years)

  • Clear Attachments, often to mother

  • Follow mom around, protest when she leaves, greets warmly when she returns.  Attach to other people.

  • Goal-corrected partnership

  • (3 years and older)

  • Can adjust behavior in order to remain close to attachment figure

  • Can Last a Lifetime.

Types of Attachment

Secure Attachment

  • Protests mothers leaving; welcomes her back; uses her as a secure base for exploration; interacts with strangers when mother is present

  • 70% of 1 year olds

Resistant Attachment

  • Strongly protests mother’s leaving; ambivalent about her return; doesn’t use her as a secure base; wary of strangers even when mother is present

  • 10% of 1 year olds

Avoidant Attachment

  • Not distressed by mother’s leaving; doesn’t welcome her back; ignores contact initiated by mother; indifferent with strangers, as with caregiver.

  • 20% of 1 year olds

Disorganized/disoriented Attachment

  • Combine s features of resistant and avoidant styles; sometimes upset when mother leaves; confused upon her return; doesn’t use mom as a secure base; confused responses to stranger

  • 5-10% of infants

Influences on the Quality of Early Attachments

Caregiver’s contributions

  • Freud – oral pleasure

  • Harlow – contact comfort

  • Erikson – general responsiveness

  • Learning theory – reinforcing through association

  • Parenting styles:

    • Positive Parenting:  secure

    • Inconsistent:   resistant

    • Rejecting/Overzealous:  avoidant

    • Physically abusive/Maltreating:  disorganized/disoriented style

Infant’s Contribution

  • Cognition – need to recognize person permanence

  • Temperament

Early Attachment and Later Development

Effects of Social Deprivation

  • Grief at early separation

    • Protest:  cry; search; cannot be comforted

    • Despair:  lose hope; withdrawn, sad and listless

    • Detachment: renew interest in toys/companions, may avoid caregiver if he/she returns

  • Deprived Institutional Settings

    • Never form attachments

    • Characteristics:  seldom cry, become rigid when lifted; few language skills

    • Social Development: form shallow or anxious relationships; appear forlorn, withdrawn and uninterested in caretakers or emotionally starved and insatiable in need for affection

    • Persistence of Negative Effects: Yes.  Serious deficits in intellectual functioning, language skills an social competence

Later Development

  • Securely Attached as Infants

    • Initiate play activities

    • Sensitive to needs and feeling s of other children

    • Popular among peers

    • Described as curious, self-directed, eager to learn

  • Insecurely attached as infants

    • Socially and emotionally withdrawn

    • Hesitant to engage other children in play activities

    • Described as less curious, less likely to pursue goals and less eager to learn

  • Mitigating Insecure attachment to Mom

    • Affectionate ties with father

    • Status with mom may change

    • Social relationships after infancy

Chapter 12

Social Cognition

Social Cognition

Def:  Thinking about the perceptions, thoughts, emotions, motives and behaviors of the self and other people

Theory of Mind

  • The understanding that other people have mental states wants beliefs and intentions.  

  • Having a naïve psychology

  • False belief task:  assess understanding that people can have and be influenced by incorrect beliefs

Perspectives on Moral Development

Moral Affect: Psychoanalytic Theory

  • Superego formed in phallic stage

  • Internalization of moral standards

Moral Reasoning: Cognitive-developmental theory

  • Piaget’s View

    • Premoral:  Preschool

    • Heteronomous Morality (6-10 yrs)

    • "being under the rule of another

    • Rules are moral absolutes; unalterable

    • Consequences are more important than intentions

    • Punishment valued for its own sake

    • Immanent justice:  Rule violations will be punished

    • Autonomous Morality (from about 10-11 years on)

    • "Being self-ruled"

    • Rules are agreements between individuals and  can be altered

    • Intentions are more important than consequences

    • Punishment should fit the crime and have some teaching value

    • Justice is less than perfect; some rule violations go undetected and unpunished

  • Kohlberg’s theory – Universal, Invariant Sequences

  • Moral Behavior:  Social Learning Theory

    • Concern with moral habits and probable consequences of actions

    • Morality is situation specific

Moral Development

The Infant

  • Early moral training

    • Initially viewed as amoral

    • Must learn to experience negative emotions when they violate rules

    • Must learn to control impulses to engage in prohibited behaviors

    • Parents and temperament important

  • Prosocial behavior

    • 13-15 months exhibit

    • Sharing , helping, concern, comfort

The Child

  • Kohlberg

    • Preconventioal Reasoning

    • Egocentric perspective

    • "Right" acts are rewarded etc.

  • Piaget

    • Heteronomous Morality

    • Ignore intentions?  Not always, tend to assign more weight to consequences

    • Rules as sacred?  Not always, children able to distinguish moral and social rules

  • Moral Behavior

    • Inconsistent!  Express one moral and then break their own rule

    • Why?  

    • Preconventional level – concerned with reward and punishment

    • Situational Influences – (SLT)- weighs import of goal; probability of detection; peer support

Raising a Moral Child

  • Social Learning

    • Reinforce moral behavior

    • Punish immoral behavior

    • Model moral behavior

  • Parental Approaches

    • Love withdrawal

    • Withholding attention, affection or approval after a child misbehaves

    • Sometimes found to have positive effects and other times negative effects

    • Power assertion

    • Using power to administer spankings, take away privileges etc.  punishment

    • Associated with moral immaturity

    • Induction

    • Explains to a child why the behavior is wrong and should be changed; emphasis on affecting others

    • More often associated with moral maturity

    • Communicates standards and provides rationales to evaluate own behavior

    • Helps child empathize and associate guilt and shame with wrongdoing

    • Points out what should have happened instead

    • Temperament – affects the ease of socialization

The Adolescent

  • Changes in moral reasoning – conventional reasoning dominates

  • Antisocial behavior

    • Dodges social information processing model

    • 6 step method

    • Faulty processing at any step and result in an interpretation that leads to aggression

    • Contributors to aggression

    • Genetic influences

    • Social influences

    • Cultural contexts

    • Family influences

The Adult

  • Moral development

    • Postconventioal reasoning may emerge

    • No real differences in moral reasoning across adulthood

  • Religions and adult life

    • Growth possible in early and middle adulthood and levels likely maintained

Factors that Promote Moral Growth

  • Cognitive Growth

    • Preconventional reasoning – egocentric perspective on moral issues

    • Conventional reasoning – perspective taking

    • Postconventioanl reasoning – Need formal operational thought to reason about abstract principles

  • Social Experience

    • Exposure to different values and views to create cognitive disequilibrium

    • Parents who encourage thinking about moral issues

    • Parents who use inductive discipline styles

    • Peers with whom individuals can discuss respective positions on equal footing

    • Advanced schooling

    • Living in a diverse, democratic society that successfully integrates the opinions of may groups

My Quia activities and quizzes
Sample Quiz !
Sample Quiz 2 - Partial
Quiz 3
Under Construction
Quiz 4
Watch out for the multiple typos!
Quiz 5
It's about 1/2 done
Sample quiz 7
This is not Sample 7 but it says so....Someday I'll get one completely correct!
Practice quiz 7 - The Final Frontier!!
This really is the last one!!
Useful links
Last updated  2008/09/28 08:18:49 PDTHits  1505