Happy Mardi Gras!
Sorry, no notes today, you should have just come to class :)!
Dr. Alexander is one of the leading Educational Psychologists in the country, an expert in cognition, a terrific teacher and my advisor. So, take good notes, participate in the discussion and generally do all you can to make me look good!
I'll find out from Dr. Alexander what was covered in class specifically.
I will be performing a research experiment in Arlington and Dr. Alexander has kindly offered to cover the class.
Next Tuesday (also known as Mardi Gras) we will finish info processing if necessary, then review all of cognition and its applications.
Basic Learning Processes
Definition: conditioning in which a stimulus with no effect develops an effect through its association with a stimulus that has an effect.
Ivan Pavlov – his dog’s
Three Phases of Conditioning
Counterconditioning: means of unlearning responses learned through classical conditioning
B.F. Skinner – behaviorism
Definition: conditioning in which an individual’s response or behavior comes to be associated with a positive or negative consequence.
Strengthens the behavior Weakens the behavior
+ Positive – a + stimulus is added to the situation + Positive a – stimulus is added to the situation
- Negative – a – stimulus is removed from the situation - Negative – a + stimulus is removed
At the grocery story 7-year-old Tommy is allowed to choose one special treat while he accompanies his mother on the shopping trip. In the candy aisle Tommy starts whining profusely and loudly, that he wants to eat his treat NOW! In what possible ways can Tommy’s mom respond (that is add or remove a stimulus) to this behavior and how will her responses affect Tommy’s future behavior?
Bandura – Social Learning Theory
Four Components: observational learning, self-regulation, self-efficacy and reciprocal determinism
Definition: learning from observing the behavior of other people.
Bandura’s Bobo Doll Study
Definition: the shift of control from external to internal forces; the creation of self-standards.
Self-standards are created in two ways:
Definition: the individuals’ "judgement of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances" (Bandura, 1977).
Definition: the bi-directional relationship of behavior, cognition and the environment.
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective
Culture and Thought
Social interaction and Thought
Language and Thought
Vygotsky vs. Piaget
Components of Language
Basic Unit – Phoneme
Basic Unit – morpheme (words, grammatical markers)
Developmental Course of Language
Newborns Three types of cries: Hunger, mad, pain
3 weeks Fake cries
3-5 weeks Cooing – repetitive vowel-like sounds
4-6 months Babbling – repetitive consonant/vowel combinations
12 months Holophrases – single words used to convey the meaning of an entire sentence
18-24 months Telegraphic speech – Combinations of two or more words into simple sentences that contain the critical content words and omit the "extras"
24-36 months Increase in vocabulary and length of sentences
The Course of Language Development
Before the 1st Words
1st Words: Holophrastic Speech
Getting the Meaning
All by the age of 5 or 6!!
Later Language development
How Language Develops
Critical period for language?
New dimensions in Self-Description
Forming a sense of identity
Self-Perceptions: Changes in self-concept and self-esteem?
No difference in esteem or concepts between young adults, middle-aged &elderly! Why?
Continuity and discontinuity in personality
Welcome Back!! If you haven't at some point in your life taken a Personality Inventory...connect to Personality Quiz at the bottom of the page and try one out!
Personality:the organized combination of attributes, motives, values and behaviors
Traits:relatively consistent dispositions, independence, extroversion, and introversion
Self-concept:an individual’s perceptions of his/her unique attribute and traits
Self-esteem:an individual’s overall evaluation of his/her worth as a person
Identity:an individual’s overall sense of who they are, where they are heading and where they fit in society.
Theories of Personality Development
Psychometric Theory – Trait theory
Social Learning Theory
The Emerging Self
Elaborating on a sense of self
Influences on Self Esteem
The Personality Stabilizes
Stability of IQ
Causes of gains and losses
Continuity between childhood and adulthood
IQ and School Achievement
IQ and occupational status
Declines occur late: 60s or 70s
Predictors of Decline
Potential for Wisdom
Factors that Influence IQ
Social-class difference in IQ
Racial and ethnic differences in IQ
Creativity and special talents
Aspects of creativity
In childhood and Adolescence Creativity is Influenced by home environment – parents who:
Development of creativity is unpredictable
Creative Achievement in Adulthood
Predictability of Creativity Measures to Adult Creativity
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