edhd320b Helen
University of Maryland, Human Development  
 

****FEBRUARY 3****

CLASS OVERHEADS

The Nature of Theories

What is a “theory”?


Why do we need/use theories?


  • Lenses for interpreting facts and observations
  • Guide the collection of new information

What makes a good theory?


  • Parsimonious – Explains wide range of phenomena simply
  • Internally consistent–Its different parts are not contradictory
  • Falsifiable – Generates testable hypotheses
  • Supported – Describes, predicts and explains human development

Basic Issues in Human Development


Assumptions about Human Nature


  • Hobbes: inherently selfish and aggressive
  • Rousseau: innate goodness
  • Locke: tabula rasa
  • Self: ?

Nature vs. Nurture


  • Nature:  biology; genetic, maturation
  • Nurture:  environment; conditions/events outside the individual

Activity vs. Passivity


Continuity vs. Discontinuity


  • Gradual or abrupt change? Small steps or big leaps?
  • Quantitative:  change in degree; size, frequency, volume
  • Qualitative: changes in kind; fundamentally alter the individual – before and after
  • Developmental Stages


Universality vs. Context Specific


  • Common to everyone
  • Different from person to person


Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory


Human Nature


  • Driven by biological urges – Instincts
  • Life instincts
  • Death instincts
  • May be unconsciously motivated

Components of Personality – of Psychic Energy


  • Id: basic biological urges, pleasure principle
  • Ego: reality principle, balances id & superego
  • Superego:  internalized moral standards
    (Where do these standards come from?)


Psychosexual Development


  • Libido – sex drive, shifts body locations
  • Ego’s defense mechanisms:
  • Regression – retreat to earlier stage
  • Fixation – development stops at a stage


Five Stages


  • Oral stage
  • Anal stage
  • Phallic stage
  • Latency period
  • Genital Stage


Strengths and Weaknesses


- difficult to test
- weak support for specific aspects of theory
+ Unconscious motivation
+ Early experiences, parenting

Erickson:  
Neo-Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory


Differences with Freud


  • Less sex more social influences
  • Less id more rational ego
  • More positive view of human nature
  • More developmental changes in adulthood

Psychosocial Development – Through 8 Crises


  • Trust vs. mistrust
  • Autonomy vs. shame
  • Initiative vs. guilt
  • Industry vs. inferiority
  • Identity vs. role confusion
  • Intimacy vs. isolation
  • Generativity vs. stagnation
  • Integrity vs. despair

Strength and Weaknesses


+ Emphasis on rational, adaptive nature and social influences easier to accept
+ Influenced thinking about adolescene and beyond
- Difficult to test

Learning Theories


Skinner:  Operant Conditioning


Behavior is influenced by its consequences.
  • Reinforcers:  increase probability of repeats
  • Punishers:  decrease probability of repeats

Bandura:  Social Learning


Humans are cognitive beings who actively process information that they observe in their envionment.

Recriprocal Determinism


Mechanisms for behavioral change


  • Observational learning
  • Self-efficacy

  • An individual’s belief that he or she can accomplish a given task.
  • Experience
  • Vicarious experience/modeling
  • Verbal persuasion
  • Physiological cues

Strengths and weaknesses


+ precise and testable
+ principles operate across the lifespan
+ practical applications
-don’t show causality of development by learning
-oversimplify development; all experience no biology

****FEBRUARY 8****



Statement of purpose due!!

Overheads:

Cognitive-Developmental Theory


Piaget’s Basic Perspective:


  • Cognitive Structures or Schema – organized patterns of thought or action, that aid in adapting to new environments
  • Constructivism – children actively construct knowledge
  • Interaction of Maturation and Experience – determines the development of individuals

Processes of Development:


  • Assimilation:  the interpretation of new experiences in terms of existing schema
  • Accommodation:  the modification of existing schemata to incorporate or adapt to new experiences

Piaget’s:  4 Stages of Cognitive Development


Sensorimotor Stage


  • birth –2 years
  • use:  perceptions and senses
  • don’t use:  symbols (gestures, images, words)

Preoperational Stage


  • 2-7 years
  • can:  have symbolic thought
  • an’t: us logical problem solving

Concrete Operations Stage


  • 7-11 years
  • mentally classify concrete objects in head
  • solve practical real world problems
  • use trial and error approach

Formal Operations Stage


  • 11 or later
  • think abstractly and hypothetically
  • formulate predictions in head
  • plan in advance how to test ideas
  • imagine consequences of their actions

Strengths and Weaknesses


- Says to little about the influences of motivation and emotion on thought processes
- Limited most mature thought to formal operations
- Stages may not be universal; children learn at individual rates, different cultures use different methods of thinking
+ Children as active in their environment
+ Development occurs through an interaction of nature and nurture
+ Has been tested and validated
+ Strong influence on educational practices

Contextual Theory


Premise: changes in individuals occur due to the interrelationship of changing individuals in a changing world.

Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Approach


  • Relationship b/t individual & environment is reciprocal
  • Developing person embedded in interacting environmental systems

Microsystem


  • Immediate environment
  • Ex.: family – mom, dad, child; school; peer group

Mesosystem


  • Interrelationships between microsystems
  • Ex.: involves the effect of family on school

Exosystem


  • Influential social setting not directly experienced
  • Ex.: parents’ workplace; local government

Macrosystem


  • Larger, subcultural or cultural contexts
  • Ex.: culture; historical events

Strengths and Weaknesses


+ Emphasizes some neglected concepts:
? Development occurs in context
? Environments are dynamic
- Not yet a full blown theory

Theories and World Views


Organismic


  • Humans as wholes
  • Humans are active
  • Humans evolve in distinct stages
  • Who?
  • How?

Mechanistic


  • Humans, like machines, collection of parts
  • Humans are passive
  • Change is gradual and continuos
  • Development depends on environment
  • Who?
  • How??

Contextual


  • Focus on relationship b/t individual & environment
  • Humans are active
  • Qualitative and quantitative change possible
  • Development depends on interplay of internal and external forces
  • Who?
  • How??

Changing


  • Our understanding of development is ever changing
  • Contextual theory prevalent today
  • Less extreme positions
  • More emphasis on mini-theories?


****FEBRUARY 10****


Agenda:



  1. Quiz 1 – 30 minutes


  2. Group Analysis of Text


  3. Each group has been assigned a section of Chapter 4: Early Environmental influences on Life-Span development (see list below). Each group needs to pull out the key points of the section; and to present this information to the class using either overhead transparencies or chart paper.



  4. Group Presentations of Text


Each group will present the information related to their section of the text. Other students will take notes and ask questions as they arise.


Sections of Chapter and Group Assignments (groups assigned by color - same as Tuesday’s group.)



  • Tan: pp. 82-84; Development in the prenatal Environment, Prenatal Stages; Conception and the Germinal Period; The embryonic Period.

  • Peach: pp. 84-87; The Fetal Period

  • Lilac: pp. 88-89; The Mother’s State; Emotional Condition; Nutritional Condition

  • Blue: pp. 89-91; Teratogens; Diseases

  • Grey: pp. 91-94; Drugs

  • Pink: pp. 95-98; The Perinatal Environment; Possible Hazards; anoxia, complicated delivery, medications, identifying high risk newborns

  • Green: pp. 98-100; The Mother’s Experience; The Father’s Experience

  • Goldenrod: pp. 100-104; The Early Post Natal Environment; Risk and Resilience


  • Yellow: pp. 102-105; Applications: Getting Life off to a Good Start

    ****FEBRUARY 17****


    The Adolescent

    The Adolescent


    Growth Spurt:


    Sexual Maturation


    • Females – menarche

    • Males – ejaculation

    Variations is timing


    • Biological

    • Environmental

    Psychological Implications


    • Body images

    • Rites of passage

    • Family relationships

    Physical Behavior


    • Abilities

    • Gender differences

    Early vs. Late Development


    EarlyLate


    boys


    girls


    The Adult


    Physical appearance and structure


    • Appearance changes:

    • Osteoporosis

    • Osteoarthritis

    Functioning and health


    • Efficiency of systems

    • Peak functioning

    • Reserve capacity

    The reproductive system


    • Hormones

    • Levels

    • PMS

    • Menopause

    • Age

    • Length

    • Symptoms

    • Psychological

    • Treatment

    • Male climacteric

    • Age

    • Symptoms

    • Psychological

    Physical Behavior


    • Slowing down

    • Nervous system

    • Compensation for decline

    Aging vs. Diseases, disuse, abuse


    • Aging

    • Disease

    • Disuse

    • Abuse


    ****FEBRUARY 15****


    web review chapter 4 due


    Endocrine System

    Endocrine System


    System of glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the blood stream.


    Pituitary


    • Growth hormone:

    • Activating hormones:

    Thyroid


    • Thyroxine:

    Testes


    • Testerone:

    Ovaries


    • Estrogen and progesterone:

    Adrenal Glands


    • Adrenal androgens:


    The Nervous System


    Basic Units


    • Central Nervous System – Brain and Spinal Cord

    • Peripheral Nervous System – Neural tissue to all body parts

    • Neuron:

      • Dendrites

      • Axon

      • Sysapse


    • Neurotransmitters

    • Myelin

    Early Brain Development


    • Neural tube

    • "primitive portions:

    • Cerebral cortex

    • Key Processes

      • Proliferation

      • Migration

      • Differentiation

      • Synaptogenesis

    • Brain growth spurt – plasticity

    Later Brain Development


    • Lateralization

    • Final phase of development

    The Aging Brain


    • Normal degeneration vs. senility

    • Despite losses, plasticity continues


    The Infant: The Newborn’s - Strengths


    1. Reflexes

    • Survival reflexes

      • Breathing

      • Eyeblink

      • Pupillary

      • Rooting

      • Sucking

      • Swallowing

    • Primitive reflexes

      • Babinski

      • Grasping

      • Moro

      • Swimming

      • Stepping


    1. Senses

    2. Ability to learn

    3. Infant states

      • Regular sleep

      • Irregular sleep

      • Drowsiness

      • Alert inactivity

      • Waking activity

      • Crying


    The Infant: The Body - Physical Growth


    Principles


    • Cephalocaudal

    • Proximodistal

    • Orthogenetic

    Physical Behavior


    • Locomotor development

      • Developmental norms

      • Motor skills


      • Gross

      • Fine

      • Moving around

      • Crawling

      • Walking

      • Manipulating objects

    • Nature, nurture & motor development

      • Nature

      • Nurture

      • Dynamic systems approach


    The Child


    Growth


    Physical behavior


    • Motor skills

    • Eye/hand coordination

    • Reaction times


    ****MARCH 9****


    1. Quiz Today!

    1. If you have time try out the online IQ quiz (takes 5 or 12 minutes - link on list) Make note of the types of questions asked for the different types of intelligentce.

    1. Do the reading for class!!

    Things to remember:


    • Reaction paper from articles 1-4 due on the 16th, if you choose not to do this paper then you must do one on articles 5-8, due on April 20

    • Quiz 4 will be on March 16th, the quiz you can leave, just turn your papers in first.

    • There should be some notes here for class, before class, but then...there should be a lot of things like world peace, calorie free chocolate, and an easy step method to one's PhD....oh well! See you in class


    ****MARCH 7****


    Happy Mardi Gras!
    Sorry, no notes today, you should have just come to class :)!

    ****MARCH 2****


    Very Special Guest Lecturer!
    Dr. Patricia Alexander



    This is not a class that you want to miss, she is fantastic!!



    Dr. Alexander is one of the leading Educational Psychologists in the country, an expert in cognition, a terrific teacher and my advisor. So, take good notes, participate in the discussion and generally do all you can to make me look good!

    I'll find out from Dr. Alexander what was covered in class specifically.

    I will be performing a research experiment in Arlington and Dr. Alexander has kindly offered to cover the class.

    Next Tuesday (also known as Mardi Gras) we will finish info processing if necessary, then review all of cognition and its applications.

    ****FEBRUARY 29****




    Tuesday February 29, 2000

    Basic Learning Processes

    Classical Conditioning


    Operant Conditioning


    Observational Learning


    Classical Conditioning


    Definition: conditioning in which a stimulus with no effect develops an effect through its association with a stimulus that has an effect.


    Ivan Pavlov – his dog’s


    Three Phases of Conditioning


      • Before

      • Neutral Stimulus – bell - ---------------à No particular response

      • Unconditioned Stimulus – food -------à unconditioned response - salivation

      • During

      • Neutral Stimulus

    +-----------àSalivation


      • Unconditioned Stimulus

      • After

      • Conditioned Stimulus – bell --------àConditioned Response – salivation

    Counterconditioning: means of unlearning responses learned through classical conditioning


    Operant Conditioning


    (Instrumental Conditioning)


    B.F. Skinner – behaviorism


    Definition: conditioning in which an individual’s response or behavior comes to be associated with a positive or negative consequence.


    Reinforcement Punishment


    Strengthens the behavior Weakens the behavior


    + Positive – a + stimulus is added to the situation + Positive a – stimulus is added to the situation


    - Negative – a – stimulus is removed from the situation - Negative – a + stimulus is removed


    Example:


    At the grocery story 7-year-old Tommy is allowed to choose one special treat while he accompanies his mother on the shopping trip. In the candy aisle Tommy starts whining profusely and loudly, that he wants to eat his treat NOW! In what possible ways can Tommy’s mom respond (that is add or remove a stimulus) to this behavior and how will her responses affect Tommy’s future behavior?



    Reinforcement Punishment

    + +



    • -


    Other Processes


      • Extinction: process in which a behavior is ignored or no longer reinforced and in which the behavior tends to weaken.

      • Continuous reinforcement: used when teaching a new behavior, reinforcement is provided every time the individual produces the behavior.

      • Partial reinforcement: a desired behavior is reinforced sporadically so as to continue the behavior at all times

    Bandura – Social Learning Theory


    Four Components: observational learning, self-regulation, self-efficacy and reciprocal determinism


    1. Observational Learning

    Definition: learning from observing the behavior of other people.


    General Concepts


      • NO-trial learning: ability to recreate operations that have been demonstrated on the first attempt.

      • Models (real and Symbolic): the focus of our observations. Real/direct models are "live" vs. symbolic models, which include models seen on TV, read about in books, and verbal directions given during demonstrations.

      • Vicarious reinforcement: cognitive operation by which observers recognize the outcome of a model’s behavior and formulate expectations for similar outcomes.

      • Components Required for Observational Learning to Occur

      • Attentional Processes: amount of attention given to a model and the conditions under which the model is viewed.

      • Retention Processes: behaviors must be stored in memory with some form of symbolic, usually verbal, representation.

      • Motor Reproduction Processes: individual must have the physical abilities and motor skills required for the behavior, in absence, learn the steps needed for when the physical abilities are developed.

      • Reinforcement and Motivational Processes: need for incentives, internal and external to motivate actual performance.

    Bandura’s Bobo Doll Study


    • 1965, nursery school children, learned aggressive behavior

    • 3 conditions: model rewarded, model punished, no-consequences

    • Results model rewards and no-consequences repeated behavior more than those in the model-punished group

    • 2nd stage: all children were able to recreate action when asked, regardless of the treatment group.


    1. Self Regulation

    Definition: the shift of control from external to internal forces; the creation of self-standards.


    Self-standards are created in two ways:


      • Direct reward and punishment

      • Self standards of models

    1. Self-Efficacy

    Definition: the individuals’ "judgement of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances" (Bandura, 1977).


      • Influence on Development

      • Over estimations of self-efficacy – leads to development as these beliefs challenge learners to extend themselves beyond present capabilities

      • Self-directed learning – efficacy serves as a motivator for learning; it determines an individuals course of action.

      • Sources of Self-efficacy

      • Actual performance

      • Vicarious experiences

      • Verbal persuasion

      • Physiological cues

    1. Reciprocal Determinism

    Definition: the bi-directional relationship of behavior, cognition and the environment.


      • Recognizes that an individual’s behavior affects and in a sense "creates" his/her environment.

      • Study: Brunk and Henngler. Mother’s, boys and checkers.



    ****FEBRUARY 24****


    Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective

    Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective


    Cognitive Growth


    • Occurs in a Sociocultural context

    • Evolves out of social interactions

    Culture and Thought


    • Tools of the mind

    Social interaction and Thought


    • Zone of proximal development

    • Guided participation

    Language and Thought


    • Language: primary means of passing on culturally valued ways of thinking and problem solving

    • Types of Speech:

      • Social speech

      • Private speech

      • Inner speech

    Vygotsky vs. Piaget


    • Cognitive development

    • Cognitive growth

    • Knowledge construction

    • Relationship b/t social and individual processes

    • Who’s important

    • Which comes first: learning or development?

    Components of Language


    1. Phonology Sound System of language

    2. Basic Unit – Phoneme


    3. Semantics Meaning aspect of language

    4. Basic Unit – morpheme (words, grammatical markers)


    5. Syntax Rules specifying how words are combined to form sentences.

    6. Pragmatics Rules specifying how language is appropriately used in different social contexts.


    Developmental Course of Language


    Prelinguistic Vocalizations


    Newborns Three types of cries: Hunger, mad, pain


    3 weeks Fake cries


    3-5 weeks Cooing – repetitive vowel-like sounds


    4-6 months Babbling – repetitive consonant/vowel combinations


    Linguistic Vocalizations


    12 months Holophrases – single words used to convey the meaning of an entire sentence


    18-24 months Telegraphic speech – Combinations of two or more words into simple sentences that contain the critical content words and omit the "extras"


    24-36 months Increase in vocabulary and length of sentences



    The Course of Language Development


    Before the 1st Words


    • Cooing – Babbling

    • Comprehension precedes expression

    1st Words: Holophrastic Speech


    • Holophrases – single words convey many things

    • Use to:

    • Talks about objects and actions on objects

    • Vocab spurt @ 18 months

    Getting the Meaning


    • Assumptions

      • Words refer to whole objects or class

      • Words have unique meanings

    • Infer meanings by context

    • Errors

      • Overextension

      • Underextension

    Telegraphic speech


    • 2-3 word sentences

    • Functional grammar

    Grammatical Rules


    • Overregularization

    • Transformational grammar

    All by the age of 5 or 6!!


    Later Language development


    • Improve: pronunciation, vocabulary, sentence complexity, language manipulation

    • Knowledge of phonology and grammar usually retained

    How Language Develops


    Learning Perspective


    • Observation, imitation and reinforcement

    • Hard to account for syntactical rules

    Nativist Perspective


    • Language acquisition device (LAD)

    • Does not explain how language develops and the role of environment

    Interactionist perspective


    • Integration of native capacities with language environment

    • Motherese

    Critical period for language?





    ****FEBRUARY 22****


    Quiz 2 - Today
    Piaget

    How Does Intelligence Occur?


    • Organization

    • Adaption

      • Assimilation

      • Accommodation


    These innate mechanisms imply a third innate process that stimulates intellectual growth:

      Equilibration


    Characteristics of Preoperational Thought


    • Symbolic Function

    • Perceptual Salience

    • Egocentrism

    • Whole/Part errors

    • Difficulty with conservation tasks

      • Irreversible thought:

      • Centration:

      • Static thought:


    Characteristics of Concrete Operational Thought


    • Thought is operational

    • Thought is logical


    This allows understanding of:

      • Class inclusion

      • Seriation

      • Transitivity

      • Conservation


      Characteristics of Formal Operational Thought


      • Acquire formal operations:

      • Can think....

      • Can contemplate possibilites...

      • Use Hypothetical-deductive reasoning:

      • Implications of formal operational thought:


          • Confusion

          • Rebellion

          • Idealism

        Other changes:


          • Adolescent egocentrism,

          • Imaginary audience,


        Criticisms of Piaget's Theory


        1. Underestimated the cognitive abilites of infants and young children.

          • for example

        2. Failed to distinguish competence from performance

        3. Claimed that broad stages of development exist

        4. Failed to adequately explain development

        5. Gave limited attention to social influencs on cognitive devleopment

        ****MARCH 30****


        The Adolescent

        The Adolescent



        New dimensions in Self-Description



        • Less physical more psychological

        • Less concrete and more abstract

        • More self-aware

        • More differentiated

        • More integrated, coherent self portrait

        Self Esteem



        • Enter and exit Adolescence with the same amounts

        • Self-image seems to drop @ 12-14

        • The move from elementary school to middle school

        Forming a sense of identity



        • Erikson


          • Identity vs. Role Confusion

          • Adolescents must integrate many different self-perceptions and feel that ‘deep down’ he/she is the same person across time and space

          • Identity crisis: occurs with young people in complex societies, like the US, b/c:

          • Body changes: revise physical perception; become ‘sexual beings’

          • Cognitive growth: can think about hypothetical possibilities; ‘possible future selves’

          • Social demands: "grow up"; select a career and get on with it.

          • Moratorium period: time in which society allows youth to experiment with different roles in order to find themselves


        • Developmental Trends

          • James Marcia (1966)

          • Terms:

            • Crisis: a serious struggle with identity issues and the exploration of alternatives

            • Commitment: resolution of questions raised in crisis

          • 4 Identity Statuses

            • Diffusion Status

            • Moratorium Status

            • Foreclosure Status

            • Identity Achievement

        • Influences on Identity formation

            • Cognitive growth: formal operations allows for the hypothetical reasoning needed to work through the moratorium status

            • Relationships with parents:

              • Diffusion: neglected or rejected by parents

              • Foreclosure: parents too close, loving but overly protective

              • Moratorium and identity achievement: solid based of affection with freedom to be individuals

            • Experiences outside the home: college vs. work force

            • Cultural context: identity crisis for Western cultures only?


        The Adult



        Self-Perceptions: Changes in self-concept and self-esteem?


        No difference in esteem or concepts between young adults, middle-aged &elderly! Why?


          • Ideal – real gap closes later in life

          • Goals and standards change with age

          • Social comparisons change

        Continuity and discontinuity in personality



        • Do people retain rankings on trait dimensions over time?


          • Traits are relatively enduring by change does occur


        • Do adult personalities change systematically?


          • Much cross age consistency in Big 5

          • Generations have distinct personality profiles as groups

          • Some personality growth from adolescence to middle age

          • Few ways in which personality trait of adults systematically change in similar direction as they age


        • Why to people change or remain the same?


          • Stability: genetics, lasting effects of childhood, stable environments

          • Change: biological factors; change in social environments (life events) poor person environment fit


        • Psychosocial Growth – Erikson

            • Before adulthood

              • Trust vs. mistrust: birth to 1 – Can I trust others?

              • Autonomy vs. shame and doubt: 1-3 years – Can I act on my own? Sense of self, assert own will

              • Initiative vs. guilt: 3-6 years – Can I carry out my plans successfully? Sense of purpose, goals, accomplishments

              • Industry vs. inferiority: 6-12 years – Am I competent compared to others? Mastering important cognitive and social skills

            • Adolescence

              • Identity vs. Role Confusion: 12-20 years - Who am I, really?

            • Early Adulthood

              • Intimacy vs. isolation: 20-40 years – Am I ready for a relationship?

              • Must have identity before relationship – a shared identity

            • Middle-age generatively

              • Generatively vs. stagnation: 40-65 years – Have I left my mark?

              • Genuine concern for future generations, growing – more caring and self aware

            • Old age integrity

              • Integrity vs. despair: 65-older - In the end, has my life been meaningful?

              • Life review: review of unresolved conflicts of the past and come to terms with themselves in preparation for death






        ****MARCH 28****


        Welcome Back!! If you haven't at some point in your life taken a Personality Inventory...connect to Personality Quiz at the bottom of the page and try one out!

        Self/Personality: Terms

        Self/Personality: Terms


        Personality: the organized combination of attributes, motives, values and behaviors


        Traits: relatively consistent dispositions, independence, extroversion, and introversion


        Self-concept: an individual’s perceptions of his/her unique attribute and traits


        Self-esteem: an individual’s overall evaluation of his/her worth as a person


        Identity: an individual’s overall sense of who they are, where they are heading and where they fit in society.


        Theories of Personality Development


        Psychoanalytic Theory

        Freud


        • Biological urges push children through universal stages of development

        • Personality is formed in the first five years.


        Erikson


        • Biological maturation and social demands push an individual into the next psychosocial stage

        • Personality continues to develop in adulthood

        Psychometric Theory – Trait theory


        • Personality is a set of trait dimensions along which people can differ

        • Big Five: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness

        • Dimensions are genetically influenced and cross-cultural

        Social Learning Theory


        • People change if their environments change.

        • Different ‘roles" in new situations, relationships, new locations.

        • Direction of personality development depends on each person’s social experiences

        The Infant


        The Emerging Self


        • 2-3 months – sense of agency – sense of themselves as separate from the world around them

        • self-recognition: a mirror image – the rouge test

        • categorical self: classification by socially meaningful dimensions, different at least physically from those around them

        • Looking-glass self: understanding of self is a reflection of how other people respond to us. Created by Cooley and Mead to demonstrate importance of social interaction

        Temperament


        • Early genetically based tendencies to respond in predictable way to events,

        • Three dimensions of temperament

          • Emotionality: easily and intensely irritated by events

          • Activity: amount of movement vs. sluggishness

          • Sociability: interested in and responsiveness to people vs. standoffish

        • Behavioral Inhibition: tendency to be extremely shy and reserved in unfamiliar situations

        • Easy versus difficult temperament

          • Easy: even tempered, content, happy open and adaptable to new experiences, regular feeding and sleeping habits, tolerate frustrations and discomforts well.

          • Difficult: active, irritable and irregular in habits, little tolerance for change

          • Slow to warm up: inactive, moody, moderately regular in schedules slow to adapt, resist cuddling.

        • Goodness of fit: refers to the fit between child and environment and affects continuity of temperament. Concerns the degree to which the child’s temperament is compatible with the demands and expectations of the social world to which he or she must adapt.

        The Child


        Elaborating on a sense of self


        • Use of personal pronouns

        • Preschoolers: concrete and physical descriptions of self

        • School-age: inner qualities or traits and social comparisons

        • Social comparisons: using information about how one ‘stacks up’ compared to other individuals to judge themselves.

        Self-esteem


        • Using Harter’s Self-perception scale

        • Multidimensional and hierarchical

        • Dimensions: academics, social competence, conduct, athletics, appearance

        • Self-evaluations are inflated in young children and become more realistic with age

        • Ideal vs. real self gap: as children develop an understanding of what they "should" be like, they create a ‘grander’ ideal self while simultaneously developing a more realistic view of themselves.

        Influences on Self Esteem


        • Actual Competence

        • Amounts and Types of social feedback

        • Parental behavior – warm, democratic – positive self-esteem

        • Peers and others – shape overall self-evaluations

        • Stable: once established self-esteem remains stable school years.

        The Personality Stabilizes


        • Temperament shaped by social experiences into personality during childhood

        • Personality is formed based on the ‘fit’ between the individual and environment

        • Behavior patterns are reinforced and strengthened by events

        • Behaviors that are socially valued may persist


        ****MARCH 14****


        come to class, it's good for you! And try the IQ test at brain.com (link at bottom of page), I'm curious to see if we all do exceptionally well!



        The Infant

        The Infant


        1. Bayley Scales of Infant Development (2-30) months

        • Motor scale, mental scale, infant behavioral record

        • Developmental quotient (DQ) – performance compared to norms

        1. Infant intelligence and later intelligence

        • Low correlation between DQ and later IQ

        • Why: measure different domains; infant intelligence based on maturation

        1. Relationship between measures of infant attention and later IQ

        • Speed of habituation

        • Preference for novelty

        • Reaction time

        The Child

        Stability of IQ


        • Fairly stable starting at age 4

        • This stability is reflected by groups of children not individuals

        Causes of gains and losses


        • Gains: parents foster achievement; not to lax or strict

        • Cumulative deficit hypothesis – IQ scores of children from impoverished environments decrease as negative effects accumulate; problems "snowball"

        The Adolescent


        Continuity between childhood and adulthood


        • Rapid intellectual growth in teen years then levels off

        • Increasing stability of individual differences

        IQ and School Achievement


        • IQ good predictor of academic achievement, esp. High School grades

        The Adult


        IQ and occupational status


        • Some occupations may require more intellectual ability

        • Job performance related to IQ

        Declines occur late: 60s or 70s


        • Fluid declines earlier and more than crystallized

        • Performance on speed tests declines more

        • More declines in performance than in verbal intelligence

        Predictors of Decline


        • Poor health

        • Un-stimulating lifestyle

        Potential for Wisdom


        • Definition: exceptional insight or judgement regarding life’s problems

        • Wisdom is rare and relates more to expertise than ages

        • There is not yet a common belief of wisdom in the literature

        Factors that Influence IQ


        Genes


        Home environment


        • Parental involvement with child

        • Provision of developmentally appropriate stimulation

        Social-class difference in IQ


        • Flynn effect – 20th century increase in IQ

        • Adoption from lower-class into middle-class homes associated with higher IQ

        Racial and ethnic differences in IQ


        • Culture bias in testing

        • Motivational factors

        • Genetic influences

        • Environmental influences

        Creativity and special talents


        Aspects of creativity


        • Divergent vs. convergent thinking

        • Ideational fluency – number of different ideas one can generate

        • Creatively and IQ not highly correlated

        In childhood and Adolescence Creativity is Influenced by home environment – parents who:


        • Value nonconformity and independence

        • Accept children as is

        • Encourage curiosity and playfulness

        • Grant a good deal of freedom

        Development of creativity is unpredictable


        • Depends on the culture – and when children are expected to conform

        • Pre-school age tend to be highly creative

        • School-age less creative

        • Adolescence either return to creatively or drop off

        Creative Achievement in Adulthood


        • Depends on the field

        • Less frequent in later life

        Predictability of Creativity Measures to Adult Creativity


        • Creatively is expressed in different ways at different points in lifespan

        • Measure general ability rather than the specific area in which an adult my choose to engage in which may require distinct skills



        ****MARCH 9****


        1. Quiz Today!

        1. If you have time try out the online IQ quiz (takes 5 or 12 minutes - link on list) Make note of the types of questions asked for the different types of intelligentce.

        1. Do the reading for class!!

        Things to remember:


        • Reaction paper from articles 1-4 due on the 16th, if you choose not to do this paper then you must do one on articles 5-8, due on April 20

        • Quiz 4 will be on March 16th, the quiz you can leave, just turn your papers in first.

        • There should be some notes here for class, before class, but then...there should be a lot of things like world peace, calorie free chocolate, and an easy step method to one's PhD....oh well! See you in class
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Last updated  2008/09/28 08:18:49 PDTHits  389