This section deals with the Fluid and Electrolytes and Acid Base balance. This can be a difficult section. DO NOT BECOME DISCOURAGED! Persistance is the key in any endeavor. GOOD LUCK :)
FLUID AND ELECTROLYTES
Intracellular = IN the cells 66%
Largest percent of total body water in the adult, as well as the major percentage of body weight.
Extracellular = OUTSIDE the cells, 34%
Extra, EX - as in "My ex lives out of the house!!"
Intravascular = in the vessels (vascular, venous, veins) 7%.
Interstitial = Between 27% (Between the cells and the tissue (in lymph, cerebrospinal and GI secretions)
Intracellular and Extracellular are separated by a semipermeable membrane, the door that connects the outside and the inside.
A liter of fluid weighs approximately 1.0 Kg.
Nutrients go in the door to feed the cell, waste products go out the door to be removed from the body. The way things move back and forth through the door varies, just as we can run through a door, walk through a door, crawl through a door, skate through a door, etc.
DIFFUSION: Movement of Particles
Particles want to go to the place where there is more space. One room has ten people, the other has twenty. The particles say "hey let's go next door where it's not so crowded". That is diffusion.
Oxygen and other gases move through the body this way.
The mechanisms in which the acids and alkalis (bases) are kept to a state of equilibrium so that the hydrogen ion concentration of the arterial blood is maintained at approximately 7.35 - 7.45 of pH. This is accomplished by action of the blood buffer system (Bicarbonate/carbonic acid buffer system), and the regulatory functions of the respiratory and urinary (kidney) systems.
A Ph of LESS THAN 7.35 IS ACID. A pH of GREATER THAN 7.45 IS ALKALINE.
ACIDOSIS - A disturbance in the acid-base balance of the body in which there is an accumulation of acids (diabetic acidosis or renal disease) or an excessive loss of bicarbonate (as in renal disease).
Metabolic - acidosis resulting from an increase in acids other than carbonic acid. Possible causes are excessive ingestion of acids or acid salts, ketosis, severe dehydration, diarrhea, vomiting, renal disease, impaired liver function.
Respiratory - secondary to pulmonary insufficiency resulting in retention of CO2. Bronchodilators would be helpful in this situation.
ALKALOSIS - A condition in which the alkalinity (or base) of the body tends to increase beyond normal due to excess of alkali or withdrawls of acids or chlorides from the blood, or an ingestion of bicarbonates, such as those found in OTC heartburn remedies.