Week of June 1st
We will continue the bioethical issue debates. After their completion, you will present a summary of your lab.
Those students will an overall C average must take the final exam. See me for a study guide. You have an exam schedule.
Please check K12 Planet or see me about makeup work. All work should be made up at this time.
Bring your books in if not taking the exam.
FOR ALL IB STUDENTS STUDYING FOR TUESDAY'S PAPER 3:
Students: Below I have given you some insight into answers as discussed in after school tutoring sessions. Please refer to your handouts (both the one we were using and the most recent ones given to you last week) for the answers You must re-read all of these chapters
prior to tomorrow. Also, after you have read the chapters, go to the syllabus questions with scratch paper and write the answer --- or at least key words --- to assure you know what to write. If not, LOOK IT UP!!! It is not too late.
I give you Option D first; then A. Please excuse poor spellings as I am doing this after school as many did not show up for the Tuesday review.
You will do well!!!! I have such confidence in you. Love, Mrs Scott
Option D: Evolution
1.1 Outline the conditions of prebiotic earth:
1. high ultraviolet light levels
2. reducing atmosphere of )2 (because there was little or no free oxygen; hence, compounds that were polymerizing were not quickly broken (oxidized or reduced) by oxygen; hence, this promoted the formation of macromolecules
3. gases included: h,c, and N
4. sources of energy: lightning, radiation from sun, UV from sun, radioactivity from elements on earth, high temperatures due to no ozone in atmosphere
1.2 Miller and Urey’s experiment - know the 3k inorganic compounds that were responsible for producing the first amino acids; know the electric source of energy for this
1.3 Why clay and Rna were responsible for polymerization:
1. RNA , rather than DNA, can replicate and act as a catalyst
2. Clay serves as a bond for the monomers in forming polymers
and can also catalyze certain reactions, including the formation of poly peptides from amino acids.
1.4 1.4: RNA’s role in all of this: has the ability of self replicating
1.5: Origin of membranes and prokaryotic cells:
a. membranes: Phospholipids naturally group together to form bilayers.
The membranes form into sphere-like structures called microspheres. They are made of droplets of fluids surrounded by membranes and can aggregate and have an identity of their own. These microspheres are called coaservates,
b. prokaryote origin: go into endosymbiosis ( what IB likes) as well as invagination
1. endosymbiosis: the chloroplast and mitochondrion --- two prokaryotic organisms, became incorporated by endosymbiosis into another prokaryote. Instead of being digested or killed, they remained as endosymbionts in the cell; hence, the origin of the eukaryote. Both have their own DNA; both care capable of self-replication
1.6. Endosymbiosis - see above
2.1 Lamarck’s theory: discuss the theory of acquired characteristics, including the example of the giraffes or the smithy's muscles; also discuss use and disuse; why this is not plausible: what is acquired during a lifetime cannot be passed on genetically --- must be in the genes to be passed on
2.2. see above
2.3 Darwin-Wallace theory of evolution: discuss the 4 principles we went over in class:
1. there is variation in the population caused by genetic factors (crossing over, mutations,laws of inheritance, etc)
2. Some organisms are better suited to adapt and are selected by the environment through natural selection
3. Those selected are due to adaptations
4. They will be able to survive and reproduce
2.4 Special creation - biblical explanation; Panspermia - microfossils of bacteria on meteorites from outer space
2.5 Evidence for theories
a. Darwin-Wallace - the 4 evidences in the question below
b. Panspermia - the fossils
c. Special creation - the Bible
d. panspermia - meteorite fossils
3.1 Evidences of evolution - You know these:
2. anatomical (vestigial, homologous, also include analogous if you wish)
4. biochemical - the most exact
5. fossil - discuss radioactive dating if necessary
3.2. Ways things have been preserved: amber, ice, peat, fossils, imprints and casts, fossils
3.3. Radioactive dating:
how it is determined: by deducing the half-life; the time it takes for 1/2 of the radioactive element in the sample to become stable. PLEASE READ ABOUT THIS IN TEXT OR STUDY GUIDE REPRINT!!!!!
3.4 half-life - define
3.5 Look at decay curve on study guides!!!!! A MUST!!!!! p. 127 on most recent study guide; p. 276 on the one we used frequently
3.6Paleoontological evidence has to do with bones --- fossils : You must use one example--- use the horse or Lucy
3.7 Biochemical evidence - Explain that this is the most accurate. Can use DNA nitrogen base sequences; amino acids in proteins; etc. Shows evolutionary relationships and ancestry
3.8 Variations in biochemicals can show phylogeny: Again, use the evidence of amino acid sequences in a molecule such as hemoglobin. See p. 127 of recent study guide given to you
3.9 A good example here is mitochondrial DNA and Eve
3.10 You know this. What is the pentadactyl limb? It is the typical limb we see when discussing anatomical similarities (homologous structures)--- see p. 126 of recent handout
3.11 Two examples of modern evolution: you can do the peppered moth; the finches on the Galapagos
4.1 Classification of man: memorize
4.2 Physical features of man as a primate: grasping limbs, mobile arms and shoulder joints, opposable thumb, stereoscopic vision with forward facing eyes, upright posture with bipedalism
4.3 What does neotony mean? That as adults we keep juvenile features. See p. 128 of recent handout Anatomical evidence: remember the pictures of the pelvis and the spinal cord and the teeth
4.4 You must memorize!!!! In the handouts
4.5 You must memorize!!! in the handouts
4.6 Incompleteness of the fossil record: there are missing links due to: bones must be deposited in an area where they will be preserved; behavior does not fossilize; animals may have eaten bones; climate and geography play a part in preserving bones
4.7 Origin of bipedalism: Discuss Lucy (A. Afarensis) and David Johansen; brain size --- from 300 cc to 1400 cc.
4.8 know - rewrite tonight
4.9 know - rewrite tonight
I am running out of time. Things you need to know:
1.3 Constituents of a diet -see syllabus for answers
1.4 Functions of each above - you know this
1.5 Why a balanced diet is needed - see syllabus for answer
1.6 Know how to interpret a label
1.7 again, know how to interpret a label
2.1 Two sources of each - look up
2,.2 why the macromolecules are needed - see syllabus
2.3 You know
2.4 Why lipids are needed: see syllabus
2.5 see more recent handout p. 112
2.6 you know
2.7 Look up deamination term
2.8 define essential amino acid
2.9 vitamins - are organic compounds needed in small quantities
2.10 iodine - for thyroxine (thyroid hormone) and to prevent goiter
zinc - for formation of enzymes and other proteins
ascorbic acid LOOK THESE UP!!!!!!
2.12 fibre- we went over in class
3.1 why lipids cause coronary heart disease - discuss atherosclerosis
3.2 know difference between sat and unsat fats
3.4 why cholesterol is needed- read syllabus
3.5 why dietary cholesterol may be bad - discuss HDL and LDL
3.6 know types of diets
3.7 ethical issues -see handouts
3.8 deficiencies - LEARN!!!!!!
3.9 malnutrition define
3.10caused of malnutrition
3.12 know causes of rickets, anemia and osteoporosis
3.13 types of additives
3.14 effects of additives
3.15 types of methods to handle foods
Stop, give your parents a good-night kiss, say your prayers, and go to bed!!!!
Week of May 10th IB Biology
Students: For the IB test, do the following:
1. Go over syllabus questions. Write the answers down as if you are taking the test. Look up what you do not know. Leave no stone unturned. Over the weekend, do a complete topic in the morning; then a topic at night. You will have them done in no time!
2. I have placed in Virtual Share the 2003 paper 1 and 3. Take if you have time. Here are the answers to the multiple choice (paper 1) 2003: d,a,b,a,a,d,b,b,c,d,c,b,c,c,a,d,c,b,b,b,c,d,d,b,b,a,c,a,d,d
3. Below is a list of APEX units to review if you do not have time to review all of the units.
APEX Units to Review
Unit 3 The Gene
Lesson 3: Types of Genomes (do lesson, tutorial, slide show, exploration)
Lesson 4: Biotechnology (do virtual lab, exploration)
Lesson 1 The Reproduction of Cells (do 2 tutorials, online exercise, exploration)
***also AP students; study alternation of generations life cycle in Campbell
(mosses and ferns as well as humans)
Lesson 3 Still Life: Plants and Fungi (do 3-5)
Lesson 4 The Diversity of Animals (do online exercise and exploration)
Unit 7 The Energetics of Life
do ALL sections
Unit 8 Animal Structure, Reproduction and Development
do ALL sections
Lesson 1 The Nervous System and Internal Controls
Lesson 2 Chemical Signals in Animals (do all)
Lesson 1 Population and Ecology ( do all)
Lesson 2 Ecosystems ( do all)
Lesson 3 Behavioral Ecology ( do all)
FOR STUDENTS TAKING THE AP EXAM:
1. Complete going over the ooutline questions. We did half of them at my house during review. These are VERY IMPORTANT and serve as a guide to what will be asked.
2. Remember that the major AP themes are:
continuity and change
structure and function relationship
interdependence of nature
science and technology
The essay questions may be based on the above concepts. For preparation, make an outline of what you would discuss if given these concepts --- include "cross topics" --- for instnace, describe regulatory processes in a vertebrate and a plant; how does structure and function relate in two different systems.
3. Please go to My Final Website and review the 12 AP labs. One of the essays will be based on them.
4.PLEASE REFER TO THE FOLLOWING AS WELL for labs. THESE ARE LOCATIONS ON APEX WHERE YOU CAN SEE EXPERIMENTS --- IF NOT IDENTICAL THEY ARE VERY SIMILAR. PLEASE,, PLEASE, PLEASE REVIEW THESE.
Links to Labs on APEX
1. Virtual Lab: The Purification of Hemoglobin (2.2)
2. Virtual Lab: Principles of Biotechnology (3.4)
3. Virtual Lab: Virtual Fly Lab (4.3)
4. Virtual Lab: Population Genetics and Evolution (5.1)
5. Virtual Lab: Enzyme Catalysis (7.1)
6. Virtual Lab: Cardiovascular Health (9.1)
7. Virtual Lab: Transpiration in Plants (11.1)
8. Virtual Lab: Animal Behavior (12.3)
I will be home Sunday evening around 9:00 if you have any questions. I am very confident you will do well. Remember the AP test is meant to be hard. There will be questions you cannot answer so do not panic. You will do very well!
Week of May 3 IB Biology
All students: You are to do the APEX program on photosynthesis. The study guide is found below. Also see the note below the study guide regarding studying for the IB test as well as the AP test. Good luck on SOLs!
APEX Unit 11 Plants Lesson 2 Plant Energetics
1. Why do leaves change color in the fall?
2. Name 2 accessory pigments and describe their colors.
3. Draw a chloroplast and label: inner membrane, outer membrane, stroma, thylakoid, granum. Define each.
4. Where are the pigments located that are important for the light reaction of photosynthesis?
5. What are the two major reactions/stages of photosynthesis? Describe what happens during each ( you may have to look this up in your text for a brief description).
6. What is/are the final product/s of the light reaction?
7. What is another name for the Calvin-Bensen reaction?
8. What is carbon fixation? Is it light independent or dependent?
9. What molecule does chlorophyll resemble? What differs?
10. What is the function of chlorophyll?
11. Draw the absorption spectrum. Which colors/wavelengths absorb light the best?
12. Name the two types of chlorophyll.
13. Name 3 accessory pigments and their colors.
14. Define/ name draw the parts of a photosystem. What are the two types found in the chloroplast?
15. What is the function of the photosystems?
16. What makes up an electron transport chain? How does it work?
17. When water is split by the energy captured from the sun, what happens to:
18. How does carbon dioxide enter the plant?
19. Where does carbon fixation occur?
20. Describe an experiment to determine the pigments found in a leaf.
21. Provide the equation that shows the migration patterns of pigments of different densities.
22. Draw a chromatogram and label the specific, maximum location where each pigment will migrate.
23. What does Rf indicate ( be able to use it in a problem).
(Study Guide TO BE CONTINUED)
NOTE FOR IB STUYDING; STUDY THE SYLLABUS QUESTIONS AGAIN; GO OVER OPTIONS A AND D QUESTIONS. I WILL HAVE THE COPIED CHAPTER FOR OPTION A DIET AND NUTRITION FOR YOU ON MONDAY. PLEASE COME TO MY ROOM ANYTIME DURING THE WEEK OF MAY 3RD TO STUDY.
NOTE FOR AP STUDYING; YOU NEED TO BE GOING OBER THE 12 LABS THAT ARE REQUIRED. GO TO THE FINAL IB WEBSITE ON VIRTUAL SHARE AND FIND THE LINK TO THEM OR SIMPLY ACCESS THEM AT ANOTHER SITE THROUGH GOOGLE. SOMETIMES YOU CAN FIND A SITE THAT HAS THE DATA ALREADY PROVIDED. YOU WILL BE GIVEN ONE ESSAY ON ONE OF THE 12 SO KNOW THE OBJECTIVES, PROCEDURES AND OUTCOMES FOR ALL. THE WEBSITE ALSO HAS PRACTICE MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION TESTS AS WELL AS PAST ESSAY QUESTIONS WITH THEIR STANDARDS. WE WILL NEED TO CONTINUE WITH THE OUTLINE QUESTIONS. WE DID HALF OF THEM AT MY HOUSE LAST WEEK AND WILL NEED ANOTHER STUDY SESSION THIS WEEK TO DO THE OTHER HALF. WHEN??????
I LOVE ALL OF YOU AND HOPE YOU DO WELL ON EVERYTHING THIS WEEK. YOU CERTAINLY HAVE MY CONFIDENCE!
Week of April 26th IB Biology
Monday, April 26th
A. Take Topic 2 Review Quiz
B. Introduce Ecology unit
A. APEX Ecology unit
B. Be studying for Topic 3 Genetics Review Quiz on Wednesday; Topic 4 quiz will be on Friday
Tuesday, Wednesday, April 27th and 28th
A. Lecture ecology
A. Ecology essays
B. Quiz on Topic 4 ecology questions: 4.1.1 4.1.2. 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 4.1.8 4.1.9 4.1.10 4.1.11 4.1.12 4.1.13 4.1.14 4.1.15 4.2.1 4.2.2. 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2. 5 4.2.6 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11 (Review your ecology packet)
Thursday, Friday, April 29th and 30th
A. Topic 3 quiz
B. Ecology quiz (sorry for 2 quizzes but this one should be easy!)
C. Ecology lecture
A. Practice IB test questions (in Virtual Share under “Practice 2002 IB Test”); this contains the original test consisting of Paper 1,2, and 3 --- do all of the multiple choice questions in Paper 1 to be turned in; do Option A and Option D questions (Paper 3) to be turned in
Week of April 19th
Monday, April 19th
A. Take endocrine system quiz
B. Hand back Option 1 Review quiz
C. Determine when quiz 2 will be
D. Check reproduction study guide
E. Show movie
A. Test Wednesday on Endocrine, Excretory, Immune
Excretory, Immune, and Endocrine Systems Test
The test consists of 30 multiple choice questions and 6 IB short answer questions. The 6 short answers are from the IB syllabus. There are two questions selected for each system.
I. Study Resources
1. Study your notes, virtual share documents, etc.
2. Review with APEX
3. Read IB chapters that have been run off for you
4. Read Campbell or MARICOPA
5. Review IB syllabus questions 5.3, 5.4, 5.6
II. . Terms/concepts to review
A. Excretory System
1. structure of the kidney
2. organs of the excretory system-diagram
3. hormones of the excretory system - ADH
4. 3 steps of urine formation: filtration, reabsorption, excretion
5. what is found in filtrate
6. what is found in urine
7. what is found in filtrate that is not found in urine
8. invertebrate and vertebrate excretory systems
9. how salt/fresh water fish differ in osmoregulation
10. pathway of urine in the excretory system
11. where do nitrogenous wastes come from?
B. Immune System
1. define antibody; describe how they work; what regions do they have?
2. role of white blood cells, interferon, B cells, T cells
3. phagocytosis: is it specific or nonspecific?
4. phagocytosis - how does it occur? what cell is most active?
5. diseases and their causes ( see IB chapters copied for you)
6. examples of non-specific immunity
7. HIV virus: how it replicates; which cell it attacks; social implications
8. the inflammatory response: role of histamine
9. B cell production: clonal selection theory- describe in detail
C. Endocrine System
1. Which gland is the chief regulatory center in the body?
2. how the body deals with thermoregulation: in summer and in winter
3. 2 types of signaling molecules
4. hormones, their glands, and their functions: examples inlaced oxytocin, FSH, LH, calcitonin, PTH, GH, insulin, epinephrine, glucocorticoids, kmineralcorticoids, estrogens, testosterone, melatonin, thyroxin, adrenalin. See text chart as well as IB copied chapters.
III. Study all of the IB syllabus questions in the above mentioned sections. PRACTICE BY WRITING THE ANSWER!!!!
Wednesday, April 21
Friday, April 23rd
A. Go over tests
B. Start Ecology
1. The notes on virtual share should be complete. We should do these in class.
2. Read Campbell or Maricopa for a full understanding of the endocrine system.
3. Access APEX: unit 10; lesson hormones (you did in class);lesson endocrine system; lesson endocrine system.
4. Do the study guide for the endocrine system that is on Virtual Share. These are due Friday.
5. Quiz on Topic 1 - You have been given the IB chapters to read. The questions will be based on the IB syllabus questions but some questions may come from the printed chapters. Please read them.
1. Ecology Packet - This is to be printed and ready to turn in at the beginning of the period. It is to be pledged as your own, original work. It will count as a test score.
2. Quiz Monday on Endocrine - note this is a change; the test will be Wednesday
Here is the schedule for the IB quizzes:
Topic 1 - Friday, April 16th
Topic 2 - Wednesday, April 21st
Topic 3 - Friday, April 23rd
Topic 4 - Monday, April 26th
Topic 5 - Wednesday, April 28th
Option A - Friday, April 30th
Aption D - Monday, May 3rd ??
Over spring break: Work on ecology packet which is due April 19th; AP students should be studying and doing a multiple choice practice test
Week of March 29th IB Biology
NOTE TO AP STUDENTS: THE 2ND GROUP OF ESSAY QUESTIONS ARE DUE THIS WEEK. DURING SPRING BREAK, DO ONE OF THE ONLINE MULTIPLE CHOICE TESTS. ALSO, REVIEW THE PLANT QUESTIONS AND WRITE OUT THE ANSWERS. IF YOU NEED A HARD COPY OF ONE, SEE ME.
Monday, March 29th
A. Go over 5.3 IB Syllabus Questions
B. 2nd Period - Go over Transformation Lab (tentatively lab date is Tuesday or Wednesday)
A. Be knowledgeable of Transformation Lab - You will be graded on Pl(a), Pl(b), DC, DA, E, MS, PS(a), PS(b)
B. Read Chapter 40 Controlling the Internal Environment pp. 879-898 and be doing study guide (due Friday)
C. The Ecology Packet which will be due one week after spring break is in Virtual Share. It covers chapters46-49. The due date is April 19th. The packet of questions is each student's own work, in his/her own words, not copied and pasted from any source, and pledged. Any breach of the honor system will result in a 0.
Tuesday,Wednesday March 30th and 31st
A. Transformation Lab
B. Lecture: The Excretory System (Osmoregulation in fresh and salt water animals; osmoregulation in invertebrates; the kidney as an osmoregulator; the nephron as the structural and functional unit of the excretory system
A. Be reading Chapter 40 and doing study guide (due Friday)
B. Quiz Friday on Chapter 40
Thursday, Friday April 1st and 2nd
A. Results of Transformation Lab
B. Quiz on Excretory System
C. Continuation of lecture on excretory system
A. Ecology Packet due date is April 19th.
HAVE A GREAT SPRING BREAK!!
Week of March 21 IB Biology
2nd period reminder: You are to view the Lymphatic System and Non-specific Defenses on APEX prior to coming to class. This will take about 30 minutes.
AP students: Do essay 1 2003; do essay 2 2001 ( due Tuesday); do essay 4 Year 2001 and Essay 1 Year 2002 (due Mar 26); do Essays 2,3, and 4 of Year 2002 ( due Mar 30); do essay 2 ofYear 2003 and essays 2,3,4 of 1999 (due Mpril 2)