lloyd8 Mrs. Lloyd
Northwood Junior High School Science 8
Monday, January 14, 2002

Check out the cool solar system website below to get an idea for your project.  (germantown)

The Solar System Model Project is due January 25, 2002.

Hey students!  If you have not turned in your Rock Essay you need to!  It matters to your grade!!

The Solar System Project is a creative project that can be done either as a computer project - power point or hyperstudio, or as a 3D project with materials, such as paper, foam board, cardboard, etc.  You must have accurate information about the different planets, distance, make to scale. On page 660 of your book there is a Data and Observations table that will help in scale distances.

Written portion:  *Ch 23.1 -  Describe the formation of
the Solar System.
*Ch. 23.1 - Motions of the planets.
*Ch. 23.2 & 4 - List the inner and
outer planets in
relative order from the Sun. *Ch. 23.2 - Identify important charac-
teristics of each planet.

Remember to do this online quiz.  Write out answers on a separate sheet of paper.

1. What made the Greek astronomer Aristotle think Earth was spherical?  

                    A. When sailing, he noticed that the masts of ships appeared gradually on the horizon.

                    B. He stood high on a hill and noticed that the land curved away from him in all directions.

                    C. He noticed that Earth always casts a round shadow on the moon during an eclipse.

                    D. He had no reason-he just wanted to argue with people who thought it was flat.

2. How have space probes and artificial satellites changed our understanding of Earth's shape? 

                    A. They show that Earth is flat after all.
    B. They show that Earth bulges at the equator and is flattened at the poles.

                    C. They show that Earth is flattened at the equator and bulges at the poles.

                    D. They show that the geographic and magnetic poles are in the same places.

                 3. How long does it take for Earth to make one complete rotation on its axis?   Hint

                    A. about 24 hours

                    B. about 28 days

                    C. about 365 days

                    D. 27.3 days

4. Why can't you see the sun at night?  

                    A. Earth's orbit reverses.

                    B. The moon blocks the sun's light from Earth.
    C. Your part of Earth has rotated away from the sun.
    D. The sun has traveled into the orbit of another planet.

5. Describe the shape of Earth's orbit around the sun.  

                    A. a perfect circle

                    B. an ellipse

                    C. a circle flattened on one end

                    D. a triangle

                 6. Why is the distance between Earth and sun different at different times of the year?
    A. because Earth's axis is tilted

                    B. because Earth's magnetic poles don't line up with its geographic poles

                    C. because the sun's electromagnetic radiation strikes Earth at a higher angle

                    D. because the sun is not exactly in the middle of Earth's elliptical orbit

7. What causes the seasons? 

                    A. the tilt of Earth's rotational axis

                    B. the shape of Earth's orbit around the sun

                    C. the tilt of Earth's magnetic axis

                    D. the time it takes for Earth to travel around the sun

8. What happens at an equinox?  

                    A. The moon rotates on its axis in the same time it takes to revolve around Earth.

                    B. The sun is at its greatest distance north or south of the equator.

                    C. The sun is directly above Earth's equator; daylight hours equal nighttime hours.

                    D. Earth's orbit reverses.

9. Explain why the same side of the moon always faces Earth.  

                    A. Earth's magnetic field repels the moon's other side.

                    B. It only appears that way because both sides of the moon look exactly alike.

                    C. The moon rotates on its axis in the same time it takes to revolve once around Earth.

                    D. The moon's orbit constantly changes shape.

10. What makes the moon shine?  

                    A. light pollution reflected from Earth

                    B. sunlight reflected from its surface

                    C. magma oozing out from deep inside the moon

                    D. spotlights on the Hubble Space Telescope

11. What are moon phases?  

                    A. changing appearances of the moon as seen from Earth

                    B. times of the month when people act strangely

                    C. times when Earth blocks sunlight from the moon

                    D. times when the moon moves directly between the sun and Earth

12. Eclipses happen only when:  

                    A. the sun is directly above Earth's equator

                    B. the sun is at its greatest distance north or south of the equator

                    C. the dark side of the moon turns toward Earth

                    D. the sun, the moon, and Earth are lined up perfectly

13. What happens in a solar eclipse?  

                    A. Anyone within the umbra goes blind.

                    B. The moon moves directly between the sun and Earth, casting a shadow on Earth.

                    C. Earth's shadow falls on the moon.

                    D. The sun lights up the moon's craters.

14. How did the moon's craters form?  

                    A. Lava flows from the moon's interior created large basins on the surface.

                    B. The sun burned holes in the moon's surface during an eclipse.

                    C. Careless Apollo astronauts made potholes with their lunar rovers.

                    D. Meteoroids, asteroids, and comets struck the moon's surface.

15. How do scientists think the moon formed?  

                    A. Several asteroids collided and remained stuck together.

                    B. Volcanoes on Earth spewed molten rock into space, which hardened into the moon.

                    C. A Mars-sized object collided with Earth, throwing out gas and debris that condensed.

                    D. A piece of Mars broke off and went into orbit around Earth.

16. The sun appears to rise and set because _____. 

                    A. Earth revolves

                    B. the sun moves in space

                    C. Earth rotates

                    D. Earth orbits the sun

17. Earth's circumference at the _______ is greater than it is at the _______. 

                    A. equator, poles

                    B. axis, mantle

                    C. poles, equator

                    D. mantle, axis

18. When the sun reaches equinox, the _____ is facing the sun.  Hint

                    A. southern hemisphere

                    B. northern hemisphere

                    C. equator

                    D. pole

19. The moon rotates once every _____. 

                    A. 24 hours

                    B. 365 days

                    C. 27.3 hours

                    D. 27.3 days

20. The moon revolves once every _______. 

                    A. 24 hours

                    B. 365 days

                    C. 27.3 hours

                    D. 27.3 days

21. As the lighted portion of the moon appears to get larger, it is said to ______. 

                    A. wane

                    B. wax

                    C. rotate

                    D. be crescent-shaped

22. The ______ is the darkest part of the moon's shadow during a solar eclipse. 

                    A. waxing gibbous

                    B. umbra

                    C. waning gibbous

                    D. penumbra

23. ______ are depressions on the moon. 

                    A. Eclipses

                    B. Moonquakes

                    C. Phases

                    D. Craters

24. Data gathered from the Clementine spacecraft support the fact that the moon _______. 

                    A. rotates once in 29.5 days

                    B. has a thinner crust on the side facing Earth
    C. revolves once in 29.5 days

                    D. has a thicker crust on the side facing Earth

25. What is a mascon? 

                    A. a protective cover for an optical telescope

                    B. an impact basin

                    C. a concentration of mass

                    D. a measurement of astronomical distances

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