Hypofractionate: to divide in unfrequent bursts or packages
Organotypic: commonly found in organs
Blastoma: a tumor originating from undifferentiated embryonic cells and having little or no connective tissue.
Glioblastoma: tumorous growth inside connective tissue in the central nervous system
Multicellular: with more than one cell
Spheroid: round shaped
Therapy, therapeutical, therapeutic: treatment, cure, curative
Histology, histological: pertaining to the cell tissues
OMS: organotypic multicellular spheroid
2) Listening comprehension: student listens to file at:
a) TBD (leave blank spacing (on printed material given to the student) for student´s notes and comments as s/he listens to sound files)
3) Oral practice
a) Student reads aloud and records voice in sound file at: http://www.hyperstudio.com/xxx2
and then compares with native pronunciation. Repeat as needed. S/he then emails rehearsed sound file to tutor, along with questions and comments.
Eur J Cancer 1997 Apr;33(4):645-51
Hypofractionated radiation induces a decrease in cell proliferation but no histological damage to organotypic multicellular spheroids of human glioblastomas.
Kaaijk P, Troost D, Sminia P, Hulshof MC, van der Kracht AH, Leenstra S, Bosch DA
Department of (Neuro)Pathology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of radiation on glioblastoma, using an organotypic multicellular spheroid (OMS) model. Most glioblastoma cell lines are, in contrast to glioblastomas in vivo, relatively radiosensitive. This limits the value of using cell lines for studying the radiation effect of glioblastomas. The advantage of OMS is maintenance of the characteristics of the original tumour, which is lost in conventional cell cultures. OMS prepared from four glioblastomas were treated with hypofractionated radiation with a radiobiologically equivalent dose to standard radiation treatment for glioblastoma patients. After treatment, the histology as well as the cell proliferation of the OMS was examined. After radiation, a significant decrease in cell proliferation was found, although no histological damage to the OMS was observed. The modest effects of radiation on the OMS are in agreement with the limited therapeutic value of radiotherapy for glioblastoma patients. Therefore, OMS seems to be a good alternative for cell lines to study the radiobiological effect on glioblastomas.
PMID: 9274449, UI: 97419943
Reading comprehension questions:
1. Hypofractionated radiation increases cell proliferation
2. Hypofractionated radiation causes histological damage to organotypic multicellular spheroids.
3. Glioblastomas in vivo are relatively insensitive to radiation.
4. Some substantial histological damage was observed on the OMS.
5. The article emphasizes the important benefits found in the radiotherapy of glioblastoma patients.
6. The study of the radiobiological effect on glioblastomas affects the OMS.
Organize the following words into sentences:
1. glioblastoma some treated patients are with radiation
2. stands OMS multicellular organotypic for spheroids
3. causes damage radiation histological hypofractionated little
Follow these instructions for the listening comprehension practice:
1) Clic on the link corresponding to the sound file by native speaker (http://ld.net/kb/soundsenter/voices.cgi?tchwang).
2) Listen to "Determined Clive"
3) Go to quizz session "Determined Clive" and answer the questions.