mraspage Mr. Alfano
Coleytown Middle School 8th Grade Science
http://cms.westport.k12.ct.us/default/cms/8th.htm
 
Chemistry Unit Study Guide: 

Vocabulary:
Mass, volume, weight, density, boiling point, melting point, physical property, physical change, chemical property, chemical change, mixture, solution, solute, solvent, pure substance, element, compound, molecule, chemical formula, chemical symbol, chemical equation, chemical bond, atom, neutron, proton, electron, indirect evidence, temperature, pressure, light, kinetic energy, potential energy, thermal energy, chemical energy, catalyst, phase change, solid, liquid, gas, melting, freezing, vaporization, evaporation, boiling, condensation, sublimation, intermolecular force, transmitted light, reflected light, absorbed light, electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy, electromagnetic wave

In preparation for this exam students should be able to:

• Identify the general properties of matter.

• Differentiate between chemical/physical properties and chemical/physical changes.

• Identify the atomists and explain their contributions to the atomic theory.

• State the atomic theory.

• Explain the difference between an elements, compounds and mixtures giving examples of each.

• Explain how/why elements and compounds are considered pure substances.

• Differentiate between synthesis reaction, decomposition reaction, single replacement reaction, double replacement reaction.

• Differentiate between the properties of solids, liquids, and gases.

• Explain and interpret the phase change graph.

• Explain when and how phase changes occur.

• Explain the Law of Conservation of Energy and apply it to chemical reactions.

• Explain the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter and how it relate to solids, liquids, and gasses.
• Differentiate between and apply  Boyle’s gas law and Charles’ gas law.

• Explain what information a chemical formula provides.

• Know the difference between a molecule and a chemical formula.

• Count the number of atoms and molecules in a given chemical formula.

• Explain who created the periodic table (Mendeleev vs. Mosley) and how it is organized (periods vs. families).

• Know how to locate elements using the periodic table.

• Know the family names of the periodic table.

• Describe the nature of an electromagnetic wave.

• Explain process in which light is produced.

• Analyze the spectra of various elements and compounds.

• Interpret emission spectral graphs for transmitted and absorbed light.

• List the various types of electromagnetic waves and place in order of lowest frequency to highest frequency.

• Explain the pH scale and how compounds are classified as acids or bases.

Chemistry Unit Study Questions

Name:_______________________________ Period:_____

1. Using the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter and the idea of intermolecular forces explain how the molecules in a solid, liquid, and gas are arranged.

2. Death Valley, California, has an elevation of 53 m below sea level. Explain how this altitude would affect the boiling point of water.

3. Explain why it would be dangerous to heat an unopened can of beans in a pot of boiling water.

4. After traveling several kilometers on your bike, you notice the tires feel hot and the pressure gauge shows an increase in pressure. Explain this.

5. Using the gas laws, predict what will happen to the volume of a gas if:
a. the pressure triples
b. the temperature is halved
c. the pressure is decreased by a factor of five
d. the pressure is halved and the temperature doubles

6. Describe the changes in heat energy and particle arrangement as dry ice sublimes.

7. Explain why both the melting point and freezing point of water are 0°C.

8. Explain how evaporation and boiling are similar. How are they different?

9. Rubbing alcohol, or isopropyl alcohol, evaporates quickly at room temperature. Explain why people with a high fever are often given rubdowns with isopropyl alcohol as a means of reducing their fever.

10. Why is it more useful to classify matter according to makeup rather than according to phase?

11. Trout are fish that need to live in water that has a great deal of oxygen dissolved in it. What can you predict about the temperature of the water in the trout stream? Explain your answer.

12. Why is a solution classified as a mixture instead of a compound?

13. What three things does a chemical formula tell you about a compound?

14. Why is indirect evidence important in studying the atom?

15. Explain how the model of the atom has changed over time.

16. Describe the arrangement and associated charges of the protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom. Why does the nucleus of an atom account for 99.9% of the atoms mass?

17. In the following chemical equation, 6CO2 + 6H20 + sunlight   C6H12O6 + 6O2
a. What are the reactants?
b. What are the products?
c. How many molecules of water are there?
d. How many carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms are on the products side of the reaction?

18. Solid gold has a greater density than liquid gold. What must happen to the volume of a given mass of solid gold when it becomes a liquid? Explain

19. Compare and contrast atoms and molecules. What do the two kinds of particles have in common? How are they related? Give an example that shows this relationship.

20. When a piece of paper is torn into two pieces, has it undergone a physical or chemical change?

21. Explain why placing a dented table tennis ball in boiling water is one way to remove the dent in the ball. Assume it has no holes.

22. When you open a solid room air freshener, the solid slowly loses mass and volume. How do you think this happens?

23. How is the temperature of a substance related to the energy of movement of the particles of that substance?

My Quia activities and quizzes
Atomic structure vocabulary
https://www.quia.com/jg/93916.html
Atomists
https://www.quia.com/jw/14434.html
Families of the periodic table
https://www.quia.com/pp/3683.html
Light and Color
https://www.quia.com/hm/73701.html
Identification of Mixtures
https://www.quia.com/jg/263427.html
Chemical Symbols quiz
https://www.quia.com/jg/314408.html
Properties of Matter
https://www.quia.com/hm/19478.html
Elements and Compounds
https://www.quia.com/jg/82837.html
Properties of Matter
https://www.quia.com/pop/6847.html
Useful links
Last updated  2008/09/28 10:44:47 PDTHits  8810