spa152mfc Krista
State University of New York at Buffalo Spanish 152 Instructor
Hello everyone in SPA 152.

This is the page that I will be using to give you important information about tests and quizzes.  Please check here periodically for this information.  It will be to your advantage.  See you soon.

***NEW--I will just be adding on new information to the end of the message.  I will categorize it according to Chapter.  Scroll down to the chapter that we are now on and look at the important information.  I assure you that it will help you on your tests! Also, at the end of the whole page there are links to help you study vocabulary.  Look under Quia Activities.



I thought that it would be a good idea to explain the subjunctive to you a little bit further.  The book is not entirely clear.

  The indicative mood suggests that the action of the verb is seen as a fact.  It is the mood of black and white, of assertation, of certainty.  The subjunctive, on the other hand, is the mood of subjectivity, of emotion, of doubt, of contrary to fact.  It suggests that the action of the verb is a supposition, a probability, an improbability, something hoped for, or something viewed emotionally.

  The Spanish subjunctive mood appears most frequently in dependent (subordinate) clauses.  In general, the subjunctive is used only where the subject of the main clause (V1) and the subject of the subordinate clause (V2) are DIFFERENT**, as in the following situations:

    1. Verb of the main clause causes or leads to action in the subordinate clause (idea of wishing, asking, desiring, requesting)
       a.) Quiero que los visites.
       b.) Mando que lo hagas.
       c.) Espero que vengas a verme.

   2. Verb of main clause conveys feeling or emotion
      a.)Espero que vengas.
      b.)Temo que no llegues a tiempo.
      c.) Siento que no haya venido.
   3. Verb of main clause signifies doubt or denial. (no creer, dudar, no estar seguro de, negar)
      a.) Dudo que lo haya visto.
      b.) No creo que venga.
      c.) No estoy seguro que ella haya cerrado la puerta.
    4.  Impersonal expressions.
     a.) Es necesario que lo hagas.
     b.) Es probable que venga.

(On the other hand, when certainty is expressed, the indicative is used!! EX: Es evidente que hace buen tiempo hoy.   Es verdad que hoy es martes.

**When there is no change of subject, the second verb is NOT used in the subjunctive, but rather in the INFINITIVE.
EX) Roberto quiere hablar de su coche nuevo. (V1+V2--without the que)

Therefore the subjunctive is like a WEDDING. Use it for the following situations.

I-Indirect Commands (I want that you do this, etc.)
N-Negative expressions (No creo, No es cierto)


Chapter 7

In this chapter we will be learning learning vocabulary that has to do with the town/city.  Know you vocabulary.  I am making a few vocabulary activities for you to practice this vocabulary.  I will let you know the address as soon as they are done.

As for the grammar of the chapter...MORE SUBJUNCTIVE!

You have to remember that when we are talking about activities or actions that exist or are known to be true..we use the INDICATIVE in the second clause (V2).  On the other had, for activities that may not exist or that we are unsure about..we use the SUBJUNCTIVE in the second clause (V2).

First we are going to be looking at adjective clauses.  Look at the following sentences:

I want a big house           Quiero una casa grande.
I want a house that is big.  Quiero una casa que sea grande.

The phrase 'that is big' or 'que sea grande' is acting as an adjective.

When the clause is describing (adjectives describe the noun) something that existes, or that is known to exist, use the indicative.  When we are not sure that it exists, it may or may not, we use the subjuctive.

I will explain the book examples:

Conocemos un restaurante que sirve comida boliviana.
(We are familiar with this exists..and it happens to serve bolivian food.)

No conocemos a ningún restaruante que sirva comida boliviana
(We are not familiar with a restaurant that serves this type of food.  We don't know if it exists.  It may or may not.)

Busco al chico que me ayuda siempre.
(I am looking for the boy who always helps me...he exists, he is a real person. Notice the 'al'.  *el chico=the boy )

Busco un chico que me ayude manana.
(I am looking for a boy who will help me tomorrow.  I don't know if there is a boy who will be able to help me.  I am looking though.  Notice the 'un'.  *un chico=a boy )

There is also the choice of the subjunctive and the indicative when we are looking at expressions of time.  When the subordinate clause (V2) expresses a real or true experience, what do you think we use??? The INDICATIVE.

When there is an expression of time and the subordinate clause (V2)expresses an action that may not take place...then we use the....SUBJUCTIVE!  You guys are getting good at this.

They didn't give him money when he asked for it.
(No le dieron dinero cuando lo pidió.)

They will not give him money when he asks for it (we don't know if he is going to ask. NOTE-the use of the future tense shows probability.)
(No le darán dinero cuando lo pida.

Then we have expressions of purpose, condition and anticipation.  Use the subjunctive with these because the phrases within themselves show that the action did not yet happen. Learn what they mean and they will make sense.

Next on our agenda:

The imperfect subjunctive.

In order to form the imperfect subjunctive we take the third person plural (ellos, ellas, uds. form)of the preterite and we change the -on to -a,-as,-a,-amos,-ais,-an.

comer--> comieron--> comiera,comieras,comiera,comiéramos,comierais,comieran
(Notice the accent mark in the nosotros)

Remember: There are many irregular verbs in the preterite therefore they carry over into the imperfect subjuctive.

estar--> estuvieron-->

The imperfect subjuctive is used:
1. When the first verb (V1) is in the past (notice the difference)

Ex: Quiero que vayas de compras conmigo.  VS.
   Quería que fueras de compras conmigo.

2. When the first verb (V1) is in the present but the action in V2 occurs in the past.

Ex: Me alegro (hoy) que todo saliera (ayer) bien
I am happy (today) that everything came out/went well (yesterday).

3. When the phrase 'como si' is used. (as if...)

El taxista maneja como si estuviera perdido.
(The taxi driver drives as if he were lost.)

El taxista manejaba como si estuviera perdido.
(The taxi driver was driving as if he were lost.)

***'ni que' also means 'as if' and also requires the use of the imperfect subjunctive****


The use of the subjunctive in independent sentences

A. Expressions of doubt.
With Acaso, quizá(s), and tal vez (maybe and perhaps) the indicative and the subjunctive are used.  The use of the indicative expresses certainty where the subjunctive expresses doubt from the point of view of the speaker.

Look at the following examples:

1. Tal vez consultará la guía turística.

2. Tal vez consulte la guía turística.

To help you understand the difference between the two examples, think of the following scenarios.  For example: There are 3 amigos on vacation.  One of the friends happens to get separated from the group.  The separated friend happens to be an intelligent, with it individual.  Therefore one of the other two friends says to the third:
"Tal vez consultará la guía turística." By using the indicative (consultará=future), the speaker lets the other know that this is what s/he believes the lost friend is going to do.

In the second example we have the same group of amigos.  This time the friend that gets lost is not a very alert, with it type of person and therefore the other two friends have their doubts about him finding his way.  Therefore one friend says to the other "Tal vez consulte la guía turística." In this case the speaker is conveying to his/her friend that there is a possiblity of the lost friend consulting the guide book BUT s/he doubts.  This is shown with the change of the verb from indicative to subjunctive.

*Note-When the speaker uses subjunctive it is not saying that the person in question is an idiot!! :)  It is just shows an element of doubt.

B. Expressions of desire.

-Use QUE (without accent mark) in sentences (usually excamations) when the first clauses is omited. 
For example:
               (Deseo) ¡Que te diviertas!

-Use QUIÉN to mean How I wish...., if only I could....
in phrases where desire is implied.  These are also usually exclamations and the imperfect subjunctive is used.
For example:
               ¡Quién tuviera quince años!
               (If I only were 15 years old!)

-Use the imperfect subjunctive of the verbs Querer, poder, and deber in the beginning of a sentence as a form of courtesy. It is the same as using the conditional (would, could, should)
For example:
               Quisiera hablar con Ud.
               (I would like to talk to you)

-Ojalá (que) is always used with the subjunctive.  It means I hope or I wish. With the present indicative it expresses a desire for the present or future (I hope).

With the imperfect subjunctive it expresses a desire that has little possiblity of occuring.  (I wish).


Adjectives modify nouns
Adverbs modify verbs

Many adverbs end in -mente (or -ly in English). To form an adverb with -mente, you take the femenine form of the ADJECTIVE and add -mente.

EX:  tranquilo--> tranquila--> tranquilamente

The important thing to remember about adverbs with -mente is that when there are two or more adverbs in a row that the ending is only added to the last one.

Lo examinó lenta y cuidadosamente



     12 FONT
     DUE AUGUST 1, 2000

AT THE END OF THE WEB SITE THERE IS AN ADDRESS FOR A LITGLOSS PROGRAM.  CLICK ON THIS.  UNDER SPANISH, CHOOSE 'Un día de éstos' by Gabriel García Márquez.  Read this passage and give me your interpretation of the story.  Use vocabulary from Chapter 8. I am giving you the assignment early so that you have plenty of time to put thought into this composition.  Do your best.  I want to know what you think the story means.  Therefore, you will not be graded on if you are right or wrong, however you will be graded on your grammar and ability to write an essay.  If you have any questions please see me after class or e-mail me.  It is a good story.
*******New: the link for the accent codes is at the bottom of the page!!!!!!

Hello all. We are almost half way through with the summer course! YEH!

In this chapter you will need to pay specific attention to:

A. The conditional
B. The clauses that depend on 'si'
C. The present perfect subjunctive
D. The negative and affirmative words
E. The passive voice

The conditional is used to express 'would' or 'should' in English.

The forms of the conditional are the following:

Infinitive +   -ía

The book explains four general uses for the conditional.  They are the following:

   1.  Use the conditional to describe an action that is anticipated from another point of view in the past.  For example:

La televisión anunció que habría un huracán al día siguiente.
(The television announced that there would be a hurricane the next day.)

  2.  The conditional is also used to describe possible actions that depend on a condition which is expressed with si + imperfect subjunctive. (**This is what the clauses that depend on 'si'is referring to.)

             Viajaría si tuviera dinero.

(I would travel if I had money-this is implying that I have no money and probably will not be traveling.)

  3. The third use described is the one of probability in the past.  Remember that the future is used to describe probability in the present.  The conditional describes it in the past.

  -¿Qué hora sería cuando oímos el ruido?

  -Serían las 7.  (It was probably 7 o'clock.)

  4. Lastly, we use the conditional as a form of politeness.  I would like...., I would have..., Would you please tell me...etc.

B.  The clauses that depend on 'si'.
-It is important to keep in mind that when a situation is  likely to happen, we would use si + present tense or the future tense. 
Si tengo dinero, lo gasto. (If I have money, I spend it.)  There is an implication that this occurs on a regular basis and is probable.
-On the other hand, when a situation is highly unlikely we would use the si + imperfect subjunctive and the conditional like we went over in class. 

Si fuera rico/a....compraría .....
Si fuera presidente....cambiaría.....

C. The present perfect subjunctive.

We have learned that V1 can either trigger subjunctive or indicative.  When we need the subjunctive in V2 and the action that is being commented upon occurred in the recent past. 

To form the present perfect subjunctive we need to take the present subjunctive of the auxilary verb haber + the past participle.  Look on page 264.

haya          + ____ido, _____ado

Also make sure that you look on page 155 for the irregular past participles!!!!

D.  The negative and affirmative words.

The two most important things to remember are that: (1)multiple negatives within the same sentence are grammatically correct in Spanish and (2) there always has to be a negative word before the verb in order to make a sentence negative.  Make sure that you know the opposites for the test.  The exercises on the test are very similar to those that we went over in class on Tuesday.

E. The passive voice

1) Passive voice with ser

In the ACTIVE voice the order of the parts of speech in the sentence is:

Subject  +  Verb  +  Complement (Objects)

On the other hand in the PASSIVE voice is constructed as follows:

Passive subject+ SER + Past Participle + POR + Agent

Los ríos y los lagos han sido contaminados por el hombre

The past participle in this case corresponds in number and gender of the passive subject.

2.) The passive voice with 'se'

When the agent is not mentioned in the action, the sentence is constructed as follows:

SE+ Third person singular or plural of the verb

example:  Se defenderá la democracia.
          (The democracy will be defended.)  In this case the sentence does not tell you by whom.

*The use of the passive voice is much less frequent in Spanish than in English.


In this chapter we will be going over the uses of many different prepositions in Spanish.  I think you have already been exposed to each of them to some extent so this chapter shouldn't be all that difficult. 

First we are going to look at the many uses of the infinitive. 

Before going on you need to be able to answer the following questions?

¿Qué quiere decir infinitivo? ¿Dame algunos ejemplos?

When do we use them?
1. When the infinitive is used as the subject of the sentence:

          Nadar es facil  (Swimming is easy.)

2. Verb + infinitive

V1+V2 without a 'que' in the middle and when there is no change in subject. 

        Me gusta hablar español.  (I like to speak Spanish.)

3. preposition + infinitive
In English we use the gerund in this position. (-ing)
Despues de comer siempre me gusta dormir.
(After EATING I always like to sleep.)

Prepositions: a, de, con, sin, por, para, hasta, etc

4. With phrases such as 'es dificil'  … 'es importante'… 'es bueno'…(cuando no hay 'que')

Es dificil encontrar un puesto que te guste.
(It is dificult finding/to find) a job that you like.)

5.Despues de tener que, haber que, and haber de)
book (p289)

-to express obligation: personal and impersonal

---Tenemos que ir al banco antes de salir esta noche.
(We have to go to the bank before leaving tonight.)
---He de terminar antes de las ocho.
(I should (I am supposed to) finish before 8 o'clock.

Hay que tener cuidado en el parque central.
(It is necessary to be careful in Central Park.
One has to be careful etc.)
(If you wanted to tell someone personally to be careful in this situation you would use the command: Ten cuidado en el parque central de NY.)

6. Al infinitivo: upon +ing in English
Al entrar-upon entering
Al recordar-upon remembering/recalling
Al empezar-upon beginning

7. De + infinitive: It could take the place of the indicative or subjunctive in  si clauses (which we saw last chapter.) I will explain more later.
si + indicativo + future
si + imperfect subjuntivo + conditional

8. The infinitive is also used for instructions. (It is  being used more and more for impersonal commands, such as on signs, etc.)
Tomar la medicina antes de acostarse
No hablar
You see this used in class every day.
Tarea: leer el libro
hacer las actividades etc.
Por and para
--Cause and Effect
Por expresses the motive for an action or the agent performing the action. (motivated by, on ....'s behalf, on the account of.)

Lo mataron por odio.
Lo hago por mi amigo.

Para expresses the goal of an action or the recipient of the action. (in order to, for, use-intended for, destination)

Lo hizo para sobrevivir.
Estudio para sacar buenas notas.
El libro es para él.

*Por points back towards the cause where para points forward toward the effect.(Pasajes)

Movement through versus movement toward.

Para is used for movement toward an objective where por gives the meaning of movement through or along a place with no specified destination.  Por is also used for duration.

Pablo va por el pueblo.
Pablo va para el pueblo.
What is the difference?????
Por expresses 'passes through'  where para expresses 'destination'.

Estaremos en casa por la manana. (during)
Hagan la tarea para jueves. (due date, time lime, for)

Other uses.
POR=in exchange for, per in units of measurement, the means for which an action is performed (by bus, train, plane, etc.)

PARA=comparison with, in the opinion of.

The book actually explains the differences between por and para very well.  Study it please.

Other prepositions.
Bajo= under, below (position- actual or figurative)
EX: Los niños juegan bajo el árbol.
(The children play under the tree. - actual position)
EX: El pueblo floreció bajo el nuevo gobierno.
(The town flourished under the new government-figurative/

Desde=from or since. To indicate a take off, starting point in space or time.  Hasta is used to mark the end.

EX: Estuvimos hablando desde las sies hasta las once.
(We were talking from 6 until 11.)

Hasta=until, up to, as far as, or even. It is used to mark the end of a time and place OR the equivalent of aun, incluso *including/even.

EX:Caminaron hasta la cubre de la montaña.
(The walked up to the peak of the mountain.)
EX: Todo el mundo conoce esa cantante vieja, hasta los niños.
Everyone knows of that old singer, even the children.

Entre=Between, among

EX:Vive entre la calle Main y la calle Elm.
(He lives between Main Street and Elm Street.)
EX: Entre amigos se dice pero no en público
(Between/among friend it is said but not in public.)

Sobre=on, about, upon (an object is on some other object.)=tiene que ver con -To be about,to have to do with.

EX:La revista está sobre la silla.
(The magazine is on the chair.)
EX:Los pájaros volaron sobre el río.
(The birds flew over the river.)

Sin=without, without + -ing, un-ed.

EX:Es una escuela sin tradiciones.
(It is a school with traditions.)
EX: Se fue sin despedirnos.
(S/he left without saying goodbye to us.
EX: Nuestro baño sigue sin pintar.
(Our bathroom continues to be unpainted.)
Los diminutivos y los aumentativos.

Keep the following 'diminutivos' in mind:
ito, ita------These 4 are
cito, cita--- the most used.

illo, illa
cillo, cilla

EX: hermanito, hermanita, casita, madrecita, avioncito, cercita, hijito, etc.

Look at the bottom of page 300 for the generalization for when to use ito/ita and cito/cita.

Los aumentativos.
ón, ona
ote, ota
ucho, ucha

EX: sillón, cuerpazo, feúcho, cabezota, mujerona etc.

When you look over these words, make sure that you focus on the second definition that is give with regards to the first.  This is pretty self explanitory.

Arriba = above, upward (direction)
Abajo = below, downward (direction)
Encima (de)= above, on top (of)(object)
Debajo (de)= below underneath (another object)
Adelante = in front,forward,ahead-further away
Atrás = in back, behind (farther away)
Delante de = in front of (directly)
Detrás de = in back of , behind (directly)
Enfrente de (frente a)=FACING, opposite, in front of
A lado de = beside, next to
Antes de = before
Despúes de = after

Don't freak out about this section. 

******Look on the bottom for a POR and PARA ex.

******Remember that the final drafts of the compositions are due on THURSDAY the 3rd of August.

On Thursday and Friday we will be having our oral presentations in class.  I will be grading you in the following categories:

Make it amusing! Dress up, use props, music, etc. 

On Monday and Tuesday we will be watching a movie in class.  It is very very important that you are in class on those days because you WILL NOT be able to find this film in Blockbuster, Hollywood video, etc.  The composition will be due on WEDNESDAY.  Keep that in mind!!____________________________


We are getting closer and closer to the end.  This is the last chapter.  We will have a quiz on Wednesday and the last exam NEXT Friday.

In this chapter we will review the following topics:

-El gerundio
-El futuro perfecto y el condicional perfecto
-El pluscuamperfecto del subjuntivo
-Los pronombres relativos

1. El gerundio- los usos
We have seen this form before.  It is the -ing in English.  We first saw this with the present progressive tense. 
ESTAR+ Present participle (or the gerund)

EX: Estan hablando de esa informacion ahora mismo
(They are speaking of that information right now.)

-The gerund is also used with verbs of motion to demonstrate gradual development.
(ir venir, entrar, salir, llegar, etc.)
Los turistas entraron mirando todo que puedan.
(The turists entered looking at all that they could.)

Venir and andar + gerund have special meanings.
Venir+ gerund = to keep -ing
Andar+ gerund = to go around

The gerund is also used with verbs of continuity or continuous action.  Examples of these verbs are: seguir and continuar.

Remember the song that we heard in class:
Se me sigue olvidando que no estás.
(I continue/keep forgeting that you are not here. - it shows repetition.)

The gerund is also used with verbs of perception (to hear, to see, etc.)in place of the infinitive.

Los vi saliendo...
(I saw them leaving...)
Los oímos gritando...
(We heard them yelling...)

Lastly, the gerund is used as an adverb...modifying a verb.
La actriz contestó riendo..
(The actress answered laughing...) Laughing modifies answered.

Just remember that with -ar verbs you add -ando and with ir/er verbs you add iendo.  Remember to look over the irregulars on p 321.  Also be careful when adding pronouns to the and of the gerund because you will have to add accent marks. (p 323)


The future perfect is formed with the future of the verb haber and the past participle.  (-ado/ido)
The future perfect corresponds to 'will have' in English.  It indicates an previous action in a future point in time.

Te aseguro que todos habrán olvidado esa noticia en un año.
(I assure you that everyone will have forgotten that news/information in a year.)

habrá    + tenido, hecho, apagado, venido, etc.


This tense is formed like the future perfect but with the verb 'haber' in the conditional.  This tense corresponds to the English 'would have'.  It indicates a previous action to another action in reference to the past.  (The past perfect is have had...this is would have------> había hecho vs. habría hecho.)

Te aseguré que todos habrían olvidado esa notica.
(I assured you that all/everyone would have forgotten that news/info.)

Habría ido, pero no me invitaron.
(I would have gone but they didn't invite me.)

habríamos      +  hecho, dicho, comido, roto, tenido, etc.



We form the past perfect subjunctive (pluscuamperfecto de subjuntivo) with the imperfect subjunctive of the verb haber and the past participle.

hubiéramos   + hecho, hablado, vivido, puesto, etc.

We use this tense when we are talking about the past and the subjunctive is needed.  V1 + V2.  Some people use this more than others.  It is used with Si clauses, ría/ra, and sometimes in place of the conditional perfect.  Remember:  This tense is used when subjunctive is needed.  This stems back to the first chapter..When is subjunctive needed?

Look at the rules on page 329. 





Look over the rest of the relative pronouns given in the book but focus on the two stated above.

The relative pronoun is used to unite 2 simple sentences to form one compound sentence. 

Mi amigo es alto.  Mi amigo es abogado.
Mi amigo, que es alto, es abogado.

You need to know that relative pronouns introduce two different types of clauses.  These clauses are: 1) Restrictive clauses and 2.) Parenthetic clauses.

With restrictive clauses the meaning of the whole sentence changes when it is omitted. 

EX: Los libros que recibí hoy no me gustan.
I don't like the books that I received today.

If you take out 'que recibí hoy' you change the meaning of the sentence. ( I don't like books is totally different then saying that you don't like the books that you received today.)

On the other hand, with parenthetical clauses, there is no change in meaning when the clause is omitted.  The parenthetical clause is separated from the rest of the sentence with commas.

El escritor de periódico, quien parece muy joven, quiere conocerte.

(The writer of the newspaper, who seems very young, wants to meet you.) 
When you delete 'who seems very young', the rest of the sentence does not lose, or change it's meaning.

The relative pronound 'que' means-who,whom,and that.  This is the most common relative pronoun. (In English we often omit it.  *that)
'Que'is used with people and things and follows the the shows specifics.

'Quien' on the other hand, means who or whom, and it only refers to people.  (quien and quienes)
'Quien' is used with parenthetical clauses, separated by commas.

Manuel, quien fue mi amigo en la escuela, es locutor de radio. (who)

(Manuel, who was my friend in school, is a radio announcer.)

Remember that when you have a preposition, you use 'quien'.
con quien, de quien, a quien...



I enjoyed working with you all.  If you ever need anything, let me know.

See you in class.
My Quia activities and quizzes
La ropa
La ropa vocabulary review-CH.7
La comida
La comida vocabulary review-CH.7
Conjugation Game
Who wants to be a millionaire-conjugation review CH.7
Practice for the test with the future perfect
Review for Ch 10 test
Useful links
Last updated  2008/09/28 08:55:17 PDTHits  1178