The Japanese language reflects the hierarchical structure of Japanese society.
Ex. No title such as さん is used when speaking of even a senior member of the same company to an outsider.

The concept of in-group うち and out-group そと strongly exists in relation to the workplace, as we studied with the family; humble・expressions are used to make social relations smooth in Japan's vertical society, especially in business relations

1. I want to become ~
profession + に なりたい です。
シェフ に なりたい です。
I want to become a chef.

2. It is because ~   から です

a) verb: plain form + から です。
日本 へ いく から です。
It's because I'll go to Japan,

b) i-adj
きゅうりょう が いい から です。
It is because the salary is good.

やすみ が おおい から です。
It's because of the generous vacation time.

c) na-adj
the な changes to だ before から です

りょうり が 好き だから です。
It's because I enjoy cooking.

3. It is my intention to ~
Plain form of verb +  つもり です。

いしゃ に なる つもり です。
It is my intention to become a doctor.

4. The particle で by means of

a) Instrument:
この きょうく を ピアノ で ひいて ください。
Please play this piece on the piano.

b) Language:
日本語 で はなして ください。
Please speak in Japanese.

c) Script:
なまえ を カタカナ で 書いて ください。
Please write your name in katakana.

5. I don't know whether ~
Plain form of verb + ka dou ka shirimasen

だいがく で にほんご を べんきょう する かどうか わかりません。
I don't know whether I will study Japanese in university.


Traditional Household

The いえ 「家」 is the fundamental form of social organization of the pre-modern period. Previously, we have touched on the following topics related to Japan: ancestor reverence, status hierarchy, respect for those older than you, seniority and male chauvinism.
Can you explain each one of them?

Traditional Business Enterprise

The 家 was the basis for the organization of the traditional business enterprise. Some of the great commercial households from before the modern era have survived and evolved into the most powerful financial and industrial institutions ざいばつ 「財閥」.

Internal Structure of villages

Leadership was based on age, wealth, kinship and length of household residence.
What were the decision-making processes and other characteristics of village life?


The morality of Confucianism was spread through Japan during the Edo period, 1600-1868. It was thought that society was composed of different, but interdependent roles and statuses. Morality centred on relationships, particularly the parent-child relationship, rather than on individual conscience or abstract principles.
How did this philosophy influence the workplace and business relationships?

Vertical Society

The Japanese treat each other differently, depending in the person's status, position, seniority, etc. How do this compare with the interpersonal relationships and the power structure in Western societies.

Japanese Work Ethic

It has been undergoing significant changes recently. How do work hours and leisure activities differ from the West? Do the younger generation have different goals from the older generations?

Women in the workforce

As in all modern industrial countries, an increasing number of married women are continuing to work. Under Japanese law, sexual discrimination is illegal. In the government, there are no longer glass ceilings hindering the advancement of woman but the same cannot be said in the corporate world. Improvements have been made in Japan, but not to the extent of places such as Hong Kong and Taiwan where there is greater real equal opportunity within the Confucian work structure.

Seniority System

An employee's rank, salary and qualifications within a firm are based on the length of service with the company. Promotions depend on one's educational background, sex and type of job, while wage increases are primarily governed by age and length of service.

Typically, blue-collar workers are better paid in Japan while the presidents of Japanese companies make less than presidents of Western companies of comparable size. There is more equitable income distribution among Japanese workers.

Company loyalty and personnel stability are advantageous. Companies invest a great deal of time and money to train their employees, creating a highly skilled workforce.  If a companies workforce does not continually add younger workers however, labor costs can become excessive.

tango たんご  単語

shourai ni しょうらい に  将来 に in the future
shigoto しごと  仕事  work
shakai  しゃかい 社会  society
kaisha  かいしゃ  会社  company
isha  いしゃ  医者  physician
haisha  はいしゃ  歯医者  dentist
untensha うんてんしゃ  運転者  driver
enjinia  エンジニア  engineer
kashain  かいしゃいん  会社員 company employee
gakusei  がくせい  学生  student
koukousei こうこうせい  高校生  high school student
daigakusei だいがくせい  大学生  university student
shufu しゅふ  主婦  homemaker
seito せいと 生徒  student/disciple
sensei せんせい  先生  teacher
ten'in 店員  store clerk
bijinesuman  ビジネスマン  businessman
bengoshi  べんごし  弁護士lawyer

Last updated  2017/05/24 08:06:25 MDT