Sedimentary rocks form from sediments (= weathered rock and mineral material) by lithification (= various processes of consolidation). Different families of sedimentary rocks are recognized, based on the kinds of sediment from which they form. The clastic sedimentary rocks form from solid grains that result from physical and/or chemical weathering. These sediments usually require deposition + lithification to become rocks. Chemical sedimentary rocks form from dissolved ions that result from chemical weathering. These ions require precipitation (evaporation or secretion)+ depostion + lithification to form rocks. Organic sedimentary rocks are the result of botanical activity. They require accumulation + lithification.
(Note: The questions marked "Bonus" cover material s from the Physical Geology.)