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PHS Chapter 16 - "Solutions"

Test your understanding of the concepts concerning the special mixtures known as solutions.

AB
heterogeneous mixtureone in which the substances are not spread uniformly
homogeneous mixtureone in which the substances are spread uniformly throughout
solutionhomogeneous mixture composed of very small particles
properties of a solutionclear and transparent; will not separate on standing; is not changed by filtration
solutedissolved substance of solution is present to a lesser degree
solventthe dissolving substance of solution is present to a greater degree
aqueous solutionssolutions where the solvent is water
tincturessolutions where the solvent is alcohol
gas solutiona mixture of gases or vapors
liquid solutionmixture in which a gas, liquid, or solid is dissolved in a liquid solvent
miscibleterm used to describe liquids that can dissolve in one another
immiscibleterm used to describe liquids that cannot dissolve in one another
solid solutionmixture of solids uniformly spread throughout one another at the atomic or molecular level
alloysolid solution of two or more metals
brassan alloy of copper and zinc
amalgaman alloy in which one of the metals is mercury
solute and waterlowers freezing point and raises boiling point of water
hydrometerinstrument that measures the specific gravity of a substance
solubilitythe maximum quantity of solute that can be dissolved in a certain quantity of solvent at a specific temperature
factors affecting solubilitynature of substances, temperature, pressure
effervescencethe escape of a dissolved gas from a solution
factors affecting rate of solutionparticle size, stirring, solute already dissolved, temperature
rate of solutionmeasure of how quickly a solute dissolves in the solvent
hydrated iona charged particle surrounded by water molecules
solubility curvegraph that indicates how much solute will dissolve in a given amount of solvent over a range of temperatures
saturated solutionsolution that has all the solute dissolved in it that it can normally hold at a certain temperature and pressure
solution equilibriumphysical state in which there is a continuous interchange between dissolved and undissolved solute
unsaturated solutioncontains less solute than it can hold at a certain temperature and pressure
supersaturated solutionsolutions which under special conditions can be forced to hold more solute than is present in their saturated solutions
dilute solutionone where the amount of solute dissolved is relatively small in relation to the amount of solvent
concentrated solutionone where the amount of solute dissolved is relatively large in relation to the amount of solvent
molaritythe number of moles of solute dissolved in one liter of solution
1 molar solution (1M)has one mole of the solute dissolved in one liter of solvent
molalitynumber of moles dissolved in one kilogram of solvent
electrolytean aqueous solution that conducts electricity
nonelectrolytean aqueous solution that does not conducts electricity
freezing pointtemperature at which solid and liquid phases exist together without any net change in the amount of substance in either phase
freezing point depressionthe lowering of a freezing point caused by dissolved substances
colligative propertyproperty characteristic of a solvent that depends on the concentration of the solute
boiling point elevationthe raising of a boiling point caused by dissolved substances


Science Instructor
Bronxville High School
Bronxville, NY

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