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"Chemical Bonds"

Use this activity to review the major concepts related to chemical bonding.

chemical bondforce of attraction that holds two atoms together
chemical bondingthe process by which chemical bonds are formed
cationa positively charged atom that has lost electrons
aniona negatively charged atom that has gained electrons
ionic bondelectrostatic force of attraction between a cation and anion to form an ionic compound
octet ruleelectrons rearrange themselves in chemical reactions so atoms are stable with 8 electrons in their valence shell
dot diagramsindicate the valence electrons in an atom
Lewis (dot) structuresdot diagrams used to represent valence electrons in atoms and molecules
kernelrepresented by chemical symbol in a dot diagram, consists of nucleus and non-valence electrons
covalent bondformed when electron clouds overlap allowing electrons to be shared between two atoms
molecular substancessubstances formed by atoms held together by covalent bonds
ionic compound (salt)substances formed by ions held together by electrostatic attraction between atoms of opposite charge
molecular formulashows type and number of atoms in a substance
structural formulashows arrangement of atoms and represents their covalent bond with a line representing a pair of shared electrons
single bondcontains one pair of shared electrons
double bondcontains two pairs of shared electrons
triple bondcontains three pairs of shared electrons
hybridizationrearrangement of electrons within the valence orbitals such as sp orbital in carbon
VSEPRvalence shell electron pair repulsion model predicts the shapes of molecules due to the valence shell electrons repulsion
tetrahedral shapeoccurs with 4 pairs of electrons when all 4 pairs are shared, bond angle 109 degrees, methane
pyramidal shapeoccurs with 4 pairs of electrons when only 3 pairs are shared, bond angle 107 degrees, ammonia
bent shapeoccurs with 4 pairs of electrons when only 2 pairs are shared, bond angle 105 degrees, water; also with 3 pairs of electrons when 2 pairs are shared, sulfur dioxide
linear shapeall 2 atom (binary) molecules
trigonal planar shapeoccurs with 3 pairs of electrons when all 3 pairs are shared, bond angle 120 degrees, boron trifluoride
resonancedot diagram representations do not match experimental results because electrons move back and forth between bond positions
polar covalent bondselectrons shared unequally, electronegativity difference between 1.67 and 2
polar molecule (dipole)molecules that behave as if one side were positively charged and other side was negatively charged
hydrogen bondattraction of polar molecules to electronegative atoms of neighboring molecules
metallic bondsattractive forces that hold positive metallic atoms together in a shared cloud of valence electrons
ionic crystal (crystal lattice)regular pattern formed by packed cations and anions resulting from a balance of the forces of attraction and repulsion
properties of molecular solidsrelatively soft, brittle, nonconductive, low melting point, high vapor pressure, easy conversion to gas or liquid
properties of ionic solidsrelatively hard, brittle, conductive as liquid or in solution, high melting point, low vapor pressure, high heat of fusion
properties of metallic solidssoft to very hard, malleable, conductive as liquid or solid, high melting point, low vapor pressure, some easy to melt

Science Instructor
Bronxville High School
Bronxville, NY

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