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HD Ch 8 incomplete, 110?s

These abbreviations are ones that I created to conserve space. They are not all legitimate.

b4 = before
b/n = between
ABNL = abnormal
ABNLy = abnormally
ABNLty = abnormality
w/o = without
thru = through
Dx = diagnosis
Dx'c = diagnostic
Sx = symptom
Sx's = symptoms

These two structures of the heart receive venous blood from the systemic circulation and pump it into the lungs for gas exchangeright atrium & right ventricle
Synonym of the right atriumantechamber
These two structures of the heart receive freshly oxygenated blood from the lungs and pump it through the arteries into the systemic circulationleft atrium & left ventricle
systoleContraction of a heart chamber
diastoleRelaxing&refilling of a heart chamber
Valves in the heart (one for each of the 4 chambers) prevent _ of blood from a chamber during systolebackflow
pericardiumThe heart is encased in this protective sac
arrhythmiaIrregular rhythm of the heartbeat, w/ or w/out an abnormally slow or fast rate.
ascitesSwelling of the abdomen due to effusion of fluid into the peritoneal cavity.
lub-dupEach heartbeat normally produces 2 sounds or tones, traditionally called " _."
S1The 1st heart sound
ventricular systoleThe 1st heart sound corresponds to the beginning of _
mitral and tricuspidThe 1st heart sound is due chiefly to closure of the _ valves
lowerthe 1st heart sound is _ in pitch, lowder, and longer in duration than the 2nd heart sound
S2the 2nd heart sound
diastoleThe 2nd heart sound corresponds to the beginning of ventricular _
aortic and pulmonicThe 2nd heart sound is due chiefly to closure of the _ valves
aortic (A), mitral (M), pulmonic (P), and tricuspid (T)The physician notes the quality & loudness of sounds heard at the 4 valve areas: _
best heardThe 4 valve areas used for auscultation of the heart are areas where valve sounds are _, not corresponding to the exact locations of the valves
M2the 2nd heart sound as heard through the mitral valve area
A2 = P2the 2nd heart sounds as heard at the aortic & pulmonic valve areas are approximately equal in intensity
S3this 3rd heart sound may be heard immediately after the 2nd, during ventricular diastole, in young patients & in older patients w/cardiac disease
S4This 4th heart sound may be heard immediately b4 the 1st heart sound.
atrial systoleS4 is due to _ & is seldom noted except in the presence of cardiac disease
bradyarrhythmiaa pulse that is both irregular & ABNLy slow
bradycardiaABNL slowness of the heartbeat (pulse less than 60/min)
bruita rough vascular sound, synchronous w/ the heartbeat, heard on auscultation over a narrowing in an artery
cardiac catheterizationa diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is introduced thru the skin into a peripheral vein/artery & advanced into the heart
pressurescardiac catheterization is used to measure _ & oxygen saturation in the great vessels & cardiac chambers
structural disorderscardiac catheterization is particularly useful in identifying _ of the heart such as valvular disease & shunts
commissurotomysurgical enlargement of the aperture of a stenotic heart valve, particularly the mitral, by stretching/cutting
cardiac dilatationenlargement of a heart chamber due to stretching of its muscular wall, w/o increased muscular development
diuresisan increase in the production of urine by the kidneys as a result of renal/systemic disease, toxic substances, or drugs administered to reduce body water,sodium,or both
dyspneashortness of breath
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspneasudden attacks of labored breathing awakening the patient from sleep
echocardiographya noninvasive diagostic procedure in which an ultrasonic beam is directed at the heart & the returning echoes are recorded&analyzed
cardiac chambers, ventricular functionechocardiography is valuable for the measurement of _ (wall thickness&cavity volume),assessment of _,&identification of valvular malfunction
edemaswelling due the presence of fluid in tissue spaces
dependent edemaedema of the lower extremities
downward hangingdependent edema is aggravated by the dependent (_) position
peripheral edemaedema of the extremities
pitting edemaedema that retains the mark of the examiner's fingers after release of pressure
ejection fractionthe percentage of the blood contained in the heart during the succeeding systole, normally 65% or higher
embolismobstruction of a blood vessel by a detached blood clot, air, fat, or injected material
exudatea material deposited in or on tissues as a result of inflammation or degeneration & consisting of protein-rich fluid,inflammatory cells,&tissue debris
fibrillationrapid,random,ineffectual twitching of cardiac muscle,instead of normal regular systolic contractions
metabolic, coronary vascularfibrillation is due usually to _ or _ disease
atrialthis type of fibrillation can occur for years w/o serious impairment of health
ventricularthis type of fibrillation is rapidly fatal
gallop rhythma cardiac rhythm that simulates the sound of a galloping horse on auscultation
third, fourthgallop rhythm is usually due to the presence of a _ or _ heart sound,or both
hemoptysiscoughing up blood
hepatojugular refluxincrease in jugular venous distention when the examiner applies pressure to the liver
hepatomegalyenlargement of the liver
cardiac hypertrophyenlargement of a heart chamber due to increase in the thickness of its muscular wall
infarctiondeath of tissue due to interruption of its blood supply
ischemiainadequate blood supply
Keith-Wagener changesABNL signs in the retina&retinal vessels due to hypertension&arteriosclerosis
lumenthe hollow interior of a vessel/other tubular structure
murmuran ABNL sound, synchronous w/ the heartbeat
flow of blood through a valve or other passage in the heartmurmur is due to
sound quality,loudness, where best heard, effect of position, and effect of respiratory movementsmurmurs are distinguished as to _, _, _, _ _, _
nocturiathe need to rise from bed to urinate at night
palpitation(s)various ABNL sensations accompanying heartbeat;unduly rapid heartbeat;noticeably irregular beat;a feeling that some/all heartbeats are unusually strong;a sense of missed beats;or intermittent flip-flop sensations in the heart
paroxysmaloccurring in sudden attacks/seizures
paroxysmssudden attack/seizures
perfusiondelivery of oxygen&nutrients to tissues by the circulatory system,w/ removal of carbon dioxide&other wastes
petechiaa very small spot of hemorrhage under the surface of the skin/mucous membrane,usually multiple,due to a local or systemic disorder
petechiaeplural of petechia
point of maximum impulsethe point on the chest wall where the impulse of the beating heart is most distinctly felt by the examiner's fingers
PMIabbreviation of point of maximum impulse
precordialin front of the heart
pulsethe heartbeat,& by extension the rate of the heartbeat
the wrist, the cardiac apex, or elsewherethe pulse is measured at
radial pulsethe pulse at the wrist
apical pulsethe pulse at the cardiac apex
ralea crackling/bubbling sound heard on auscultation of the breath sounds
crepitant ralea fine crackling rale
rhonchusa whistling/humming sound caused by passage of air thru narrowed parts of the respiratory tract
precordial shockan ABNLy strong thrust applied to the chest wall by the beating heart,as detected by the examiner's fingers
splittingseparation of the 1st or 2nd heart sound,or both,into 2 distinctly audible components
stigmaa structural or functional peculiarity or ABNLty that is characteristic of an inherited or acquired condition,& may be useful in its Dx
stigmataplural of stigma
syncopesudden loss of consciousness;fainting
tachyarrhythmiaa pulse that is both irregular&ABNLy rapid
tachycardiarapid heart rate (over 100/min)
thrillan ABNL sensation felt by the examiner over the heart when blood jets thru an anomalous/narrowed orifice
tunica intimathe innermost layer or lining of an artery
vascularpertaining to 1 or more blood vessels
venipunctureinsertion of a needle into a vein for the purpose of removing blood for testing,or to inject fluids,medicines,or Dx'c materials
congenital heart diseasea large&various group of structural abnormalities present at birth&involving the heart chambers,valves,associated great vessles,/some combination of these
geneticallycongenital heart disease can be _ determined,/can result from interference w/NL embryonic development by intrauterine exposure to maternal infections,medicines,etc.
incompatiblesome congenital heart disorders are _ w/ life; others cause few or no Sx's
cyanotic congenital heart diseases_ cause obvious impairment of oxygenation of the blood in early life
acyanotic congenital heart diseasesthese congenital heart diseases have delayed or absent Sx's
coarctation of the aortanarrowing of the aortic arch,just beyond the origin of the left subclavian artery,often associated w/ ABNL'ty of the aortic valve
symptomscoarctation of the aorta usually has no _ until evidence of cardiac failure/consequences of hypertension become evident
arterial pulsesin coarctation of the aorta,_ become prominent in the neck,weak or absent in the lower extremities.Blood pressure elevated in arms,normal/low in legs.A systolic murmur at the rate of narrowing
chest x-rayIn coarctation of the aorta, _ may show left ventricular hypertrophy and notching of ribs by dilated collateral vessels.
LVH stands forleft ventricular hypertrophy
course of coarctation of the aortacongestive heart failure,early death due to hypertension,aortic rupture,/endocarditits
treatment of coarctation of the aortasurgical correction of the narrowing. Balloon dilatation sometimes successful
patent ductus arteriosuspersistence of the fetal communication b/n the aorta&the pulmonary artery
the pulmonary artery shunts blood around the (_) lungs until birthunexpanded and nonfunctioning
clinical significancein patent ductus arteriosus, _ depends on the amount of shunting that persists after birth
history of patent ductus arteriosusno symptoms,or symptoms only w/ development of left ventricular hypertrophy or failure
physical examination of patent ductus arteriosuswidened pulse pressure,reduced diastolic pressure. Accented 2nd heart sound;continuous "machinery" murmur along the left sternal border
normal,left ventricular hypertrophy,pulmonary and aortic silhouettesin patent ductus arteriosus, chest x-ray may be _ or may show _ and dilatation of the _
ECGin patent ductus arteriosus,_ may show left ventricular hypertrophy

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