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HHA&P Glossary, incomplete, 70 terms

Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology, seventh edition

AB
abdomenPortion of the body b/n the diaphragm & the pelvis
abdominalPertaining to the abdomen
abdominal cavityThe space b/n the diaphragm & the pelvic inlet that contains the abdominal viscera
abdominopelvic cavityThe space b/n the diaphragm & the lower portion of the trunk of the body
abductionMovement of a body part away from the midline
absorptionThe taking in of substances by cells or membranes
accessory organsOrgans that supplement the functions of other organs
accommodationAdjustment of the lens for close vision
acetoneOne of the ketone bodies produced as a result of the oxidation of fats
acetylcholineA type of neurotransmitter
acetyl coenzyme AAn intermediate compound produced during the oxidation of carbohydrates & fats
acidA substance that ionizes in water to release hydrogen ions
acid-base buffer systemA pair of chemicals, 1 a weak acid, the other a weak base, that resists pH changes
acidosisA relative increase in the acidity of body fluids
acromialPertaining to the shoulder
ACTHAdrenocorticotropic hormone
actinA protein in a muscle fiber that, together w/ myosin, is responsible for contraction & relaxation
action potentialThe sequence of electrical changes occurring when a nerve cell membrane is exposed to a stimulus that exceeds its threshold
activation energyEnergy required to initiate a chemical reaction
active siteRegion of an enzyme molecule that combines temporarily w/ a substrate
active transportProcess that requires an expenditure of energy to move a substance across a cell membrane;usually moved against the concentration gradient
acupunctureProcedure in which needles are inserted into various veins to control pain sensations
adaptationAdjustment to environmental conditions
adductionMovement of a body part toward the midline
adenoidsThe pharyngeal tonsils located in the nasopharynx
adenosine diphosphateADP; molecule produced when the terminal phosphate is lost from a molecule of adenosine triphosphate
adenosine triphosphateAn organic molecule that stores energy & releases energy for cellular processes
adenylate cyclaseAn enzyme that is activated when certain hormones combine w/ receptors on cell membranes,causing ATP to release 2 phosphates and circularize, forming cyclic AMP
ADHAntidiruetic hormone
adipose tissueFat-storing tissue
adolescencePeriod of life b/n puberty & adulthood
ADPAdenosine diphosphate
adrenal cortexThe outer portion of the adrenal gland
adrenal glandsEndocrine glands located on the superior portions of the kidneys
adrenalineA hormone produced by the adrenal glands
adrenal medullaThe inner portion of the adrenal gland
adrenergic fiberA nerve fiber that secretes norepinephrine at the axon terminal
adrenocorticotropic hormoneACTH: hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that stimulates activity in the adrenal cortex
aerobic respirationPhase of cellular respiration that requires oxygen
afferentConducting toward a center. For example, an _arteriole conveys blood to the glomerulus of a nephron w/in the kidney
agglutinationClumping of blood cells in response to a reaction b/n an antibody & an antigen
agranulocyteA nongranular leukocyte
albuminA plasma protein that helps regulate the osmotic concentration of blood
aldosteroneA hormone, secreted by the adrenal cortex, that regulates sodium & potassium ion concentrations and water balance
alimentary canalThe tubular portion of the digestive tract that leads from the mouth to the anus
alkalinePertaining to or having the properties of a base or alkali; basic
alkaline tideAn increase in the blood concentration of bicarbonate ions following a meal
alkaloidA group of organic substances that are usually bitter in taste and have toxic effects
alkalosisA relative increase in the alkalinity of body fluids
allantosisA structure that appears during embryonic development & functions in the formation of umbilical blood vessels
alleleDifferent forms of a gene
allergenA foreign substance capable of stimulating an allergic reaction
all-or-none responsePhenomenon in which a muscle fiber contracts completely when it is exposed to a stimulus of threshold strength
alpha receptorReceptor on effector cell membrane that combines w/ epinephrine or norepinephrine
alpha-tocopherolVitamin E
alveolar ductsFine tubes that carry air to the air sacs of the lungs
alveolar poresMinute openings in the walls of air sacs, which permit air to pass from 1 alveolus to another
alveolar processProjection on the border of the jaw in which the bony sockets of the teeth are located
alveolusAn air sac of a lung; a saclike structure
alveoliplural of alveolus
amacrine cellA retinal neuron whose fibers pass laterally b/n other retinal cells
amineA type of nitrogen-containing organic compound, including the hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla
amino acidAn organic compound of relatively small molecular size that contains an amino group and a carboxyl group; the structural unit of a protein molecule
the structure of an amino group-NH2
the structure of a carboxyl group-COOH
amniocentesisA procedure in which a sample of amniotic flud is removed thru the abdominal wall of a pregnant woman. Fetal cells in it are cultured & examined to check for chromosome complement
amnionAn extra embryonic membrane that encircles a developing fetus & contains amniotic fluid
amniotic cavityFluid-filled space enclosed by the amnion
amniotic fluidFluid w/in the amniotic cavity that surrounds the developing fetus
ampullaAn expansion of the end of each semicircular canal that contains a crista ampullaris

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