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Essential Evolution Unit Flashcards (chapters 15 and 16)

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AB
Hutton and Lyell were two famous geologists whose work suggests that the Earth is several ______ of years old.millions
Hutton and Lyell's work was important to Darwin because their work suggested that the Earth was _____ enough for evolution to have occurred.old
Hutton and Lyell's work was important to Darwin because their work suggested that the Earth was old enough for ________ to have occurred.evolution
_______ and _______ work was important to Darwin because their work suggested that the Earth was old enough for evolution to have occurred.Hutton and Lyell's
Lamarck incorrectly proposed that evolution was caused by the ____________________.need to use something new and or improved during the organism's lifetime.
Lamarck proposed an hypothesis of evolution based on the inheritance of _______. His hypothesis was eventually ____.acquired characteristics, disproven
The idea that only famine, war and disease could prevent the endless growth of the human population was proposed by _____.Malthus
The idea that only ___, ____, and _____ could prevent the endless growth of the human population was proposed by Malthus.famine, war and disease
Darwin realized that the ideas of economist Thomas Malthus on human populations could apply to ______ also.all living organisms
In 1859, Charles Darwin published his ideas on evolution by natural selection in his famous book titled _________.On the Origin of Species
In 1859, ______ published his ideas on evolution by natural selection in his famous book titled "On the Origin of Species."Charles Darwin
Both _______ and Alfred Wallace proposed explanations for how evolution can work according to natural selection.Charles Darwin
The mechanism for evolution proposed by both Darwin and Wallace around the same time was _____.natural selection
According to Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, an organism's survival depends on inherited characteristics that maximize the ____ of the organism.fitness
According to Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, an organism's survival is dependent on ____ that maximize the fitness of the organism.inherited characteristics
All the different genes (alleles) of all the members of a particular species make up the species' _____.gene pool
Natural selections act directly on ____.phenotypes (Natural selection can't act directly to choose the best alleles because sometimes, alleles are hidden as recessive alleles. It can only act on the physical expression of the organism's genotype)
When individuals at one end of a bell curve of phenotype frequencies have the highest fitness, selection is _____.directional,
When individuals near the middle (or peak) of a bell curve of phenotype frequencies have the highest fitness, selection is _____.stabilizing,
When individuals near the middle (or peak) of a bell curve of phenotype frequencies have the lowest fitness, selection is _____.disruptive,
The type of natural selection that is most likely to lead to the formation of a new species is _____ selection.disruptive,
The separation of a population by a barrier such as a mountain range or a wide river is called _______.geographic isolation
A structure that two different species have in common but seems to have lost its function in one of the species is called a ______ structure and is evidence of common ancestry.vestigial,
Structures, like the wings of a bat and the arms of a man that have different functions but are derived from the same type of embryological tissue, are called ____ structures and are strong evidence for common ancestory.homologous,
The ___ of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals look and develop very similarly. This is evidence that these animals are closely related in an evolutionary sense.embryos,
The type of selection effect shown below is ____., directional selection,
The type of selection effect shown below is ____., disruptive selection,
The type of selection effect shown below is ____., stabilizing selection,
Evolution is occurring when there is a change in the ________ of a(n) ________ in the gene pool of an organism over time.frequency, allele (for example, if the percentage of blue-eyed alleles in the human gene pool increases over the next 100,000 years, it can be said that evolution occurred)
_____ occurs when there is a change in the frequency of an allele in the gene pool of an organism over time.Evolution
An adaptation occurs when there is a change in a gene (caused by a random ____________ ) that gives an organism a better chance to ___ and ___mutation, survive and reproduce
A(n) ____ occurs when there is a change in a gene (caused by a random mutation) that gives an organism a better chance to survive and reproduce.adaptation
Comparing nucleotide sequences in DNA or amino acid sequences in proteins common to two different species in order to determine how recently they shared a common ancestor is an example of using _____ evidence to test the theory of evolution.biochemical
Biochemical evidence for evolution involves comparing ____ or _____ structure between organisms.DNA, protein
________ selection is caused by selective breeding of plants and animals on farms.Artificial
Artificial selection is caused by ________ of plants and animals on farms.selective breeding
_______ selection is caused by the sexual preferences of males or females within a species.Sexual
The process by which new species are formed is called _____.speciation
Speciation usually occurs because a _____ population of a certain species becomes ______ from the larger population and adapts over time to their new environment.small, isolated
For speciation to be able to occur, two populations must become _______ isolated from each other (meaning that they stop mating with each other).reproductively isolated
At the point where two populations can no longer breed to produce ______ offspring, they are considered two different species.fertile (For instance, a donkey and a horse can mate and produce an offspring, known as a mule, but since the mule is sterile, donkeys and horses are considered to be two different species. A poodle and a German Shepard can mate and the resulting offspring can also mate and produce a fertile offspring, therefore, poodles and German Shepards are considered to be the same species, namely, Canis familiaris, commonly called "dogs."
____ is the evolution of diversely adapted species from a common ancestor upon introduction to new environmental opportunities.Adaptive radiation (Darwin's finches, pictured below, are a prime example of adaptive radiation. It is thought that a single species of finch arrived at the Galapagos Islands and underwent speciation as they spread out and adapted to the different habitats on the different islands),
A sudden change in the environment may drastically reduce the size of a population, causing something known as the ______ where the gene pool may no longer be reflective of the original population’s gene pool because many alleles where lost when most of the individuals in the population died.bottleneck effect
The ____ effect occurs when a small group of individuals becomes separated from the larger population and no longer reflects the average genetic makeup of the population from which they once belonged.founder effect (Picture Darwin's finches getting blown off course during a storm and ending up on the Galapagos islands. Because the group is small, they don't posses all the genes in their gene pool that can be found in the gene pool of the large population that can still be found on the South American mainland)
Variation in the relative frequency of different genotypes in a small population, owing to the chance disappearance of particular genes as individuals die or do not reproduce.Genetic drift (This is evolution that is random and is not caused by natural selection)
Structures that are similar between two species because the species have adapted to similar environmental conditions, not because they are of common origin, are called _____ structures.analogous structures (The wings of a moth and the wings of a bat are analogous structures. They both have shape that looks similar because wings have to look a certain way in order to work. However, the wings of moths and the wings of bats are thought to have evolved separately from each other and become similar through convergent evolution)


Truman High School

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