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SOL Essential Knowledge 4

SOL Review

What geographical features protected Rome and the Italian peninsula?Mediterranean Sea; Alps
Who were the major gods and goddesses in Roman mythology?Jupiter-sky;Juno-childbirth, marriage; Apollo- music;Diana-hunt; Minerva-wisdom; Venus-love
What was the early form of Roman government?Republic
Who were the Patricians?citizens; powerful nobility (the few)
Who were the Plebeians?citizens; majority of the population
Patricians and plebeians were given citizenship in excahnge for what?military service and paying taxes
What were the twelve tables?codified Roman Law
What city in North Africa came into conflict with Rome over the control of trade?Carthage (they fought in the Punic Wars)
Who was Hannibal?Carthaginian general who invaded Italian peninsula by crossing Alps, eventually defeated in 2nd Punic War
Who won the Punic Wars?Rome; Carthage was destroyed
What four things caused the decline of the Roman Republic?1. spread slavery in agricultural system 2. migration of farmers into cities, unemployment 3. civil wars 4. inflation
Who was Julius Ceasar?seized power, formed first triumvirate, assassinated; Romes Republic is headed to its end)
Who was Augustus Caesar?defeated Mac Antony, 1st Roman Emperor, unified and enlarged empire, est. civil service, rule by law, common coinage
What was the Pax Romana?200 year period of peace and prosperity, also marked expansion of the empire
What was the economic impact of the Pax Romana?1. uniform system of money-important for trade 2. safe travel on roads 3. prosperity and stability
What was the political impact of the Pax Romana?1. created a civil service 2. developed a uniform rule of law
What was the social impact of the Pax Romana?1. stability returned to social classes 2. increased emphasis on the family
Who began the teachings that eventually evolved into Christianity?Jesus of Nazareth (he was eventually viewed as the messiah)
What are the major beliefs of Christianity?monotheistic (1 god); Jesus; life after death; New Testament tells life and teachings of Jesus
Who adopted and legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire?Constantine
What was the Pantheon?architectural structure dedicated to Roman gods and goddesses, rotunda
What was the Colesseum?architectural structure for games, events, gladiator contests
What was the Forum?place where 12 tables were located, political center of Rome
Who was Ptolemy?scientist who believed Earth was the center of the universe

SOL Review: World History and Geography I
Broad Run High School

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