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Digestive system terms

Memory and flashcards for digestive terms.

AB
Bilephysically breakes apart large fat globules
Salivary amylase / ptyalin (enzyme)begins carbohydrate digestion
Intrinsic factorrequired for absorption of vitamin B12 from the small intestine into the bloodstream
Pepsinogen / pepsinbegins chemical digestion of proteins
Sphincterring of muscle fibers that regulate movement of miterials from one compartment of the GI tract to another
Salivafluid containing water, mucus, organic salts, and digestive enzymes
Masticationchewing
IngestionThe process of orally taking materials into the body.
EnzymeA catalyst that accelerates chemical reactions.
AbsorbtionA process by which the products of digestion move into the bloodstream.
DefacationThe process of eliminating indigestable materials from the body.
TunicsThe four layers of the Alimentary canal.
Layers of the Tunics (inner to outer)Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa.
Alimentary canal (GI Tract)The generally coiled, muscular passageway leading from the mouth to the anus.
PeristalsisMuscular, wavelike contractions of the digestive system.
BolusA ball like, masticated lump of food once it is swallowed.
PeritoneumThe largest serous membrane in the body that envelopes the entire abdominal wall.
Oral cavityThe port of entry for the ingestion of food and drink into the body into the body.
DeglutitionSwallowing
Gustatory organsThe taste buds.
Cardioesophageal sphincterlocated at the junction of the stomacha and the Esophagus.
Pyloric SphinctorLocated between the stomach and the small intestine.
RugaeThe longitudinal folds in the lining of the stomach.
ChymeA bolus of food reduced to a thin viscous fluid.
G cellsThe endocrine cells of the gastric mucosa that secrete the hormone gastrin.
Parietal CellsThe exocrine cells that produce intrinsic factor
Chief cellsThe exocrine cells that produce the enzyme pepsinogen, which is a precursor to pepsin.
Ileocecal SphincterThe circular muscle that connects the ileum of the small intestine to the cecum of the large intestine.
VilliFingerlike projections of the small intestine that house blood and lymph capillaries.
LactealsLymph capilaries that are contained in the villi that assist in the absorption of fat.
DuodenumThe first section of the small intestines.
Sphincter of OddiRegulates the flow of secretions of the pancreas, liver and gall bladder
JejunumThe intermediate portion of the small intestine
IleumThe final division of the small intestine.
MesentariesA large, fan shaped structure consisting of two omentums; it is part of the peritoneum
Greater OmentumOften described as the fatty apron; this doubler layered structure connects to the greater curvature of the stomach and duodenum, drapes down over the coils of the small intestine, and then attach to the ascending colon.
Lesser OmentumA fatty membraneous extension of the peritoneum that attaches from the right side of the stomach, the first section of the duodenum to the liver.
Brunner's glandsAlso called duodenal glands; they secrete alkaline mucus.
Taenia coliLocated in the muscularis tunic of the large intestine these thick, longitudinal bands resemble a thread gathering fabric.
Haustraseries of pouches in the large intestine
CecumThe first section of the large intestine/colon
Veriform appendixThis lymph gland is suspended from and opens into the inferior portion of the cecum.


Renton Technical College

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