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Chapter 19 "Acids, Bases, and Salts"

Use these activities to study the vocabulary and major concepts presented in this chapter.

hydrolyzing saltscompounds derived from the reaction of a strong base with a weak acid or a strong acid with a weak base or a solution of a weak base and one of its salts
neutralterm used to describe the pH of a solution that results when one equivalent of a strong acid is mixed with one equivalent of a strong base
equivalence pointthe number of moles of hydrogen ions equals the number of moles of hydroxide ions in a titration
buffersolution that consists of a weak acid and one of its salts
acid dissociation constantKa = ([H+][A-])/[HA]
acidic solution[H+] greater than [OH-]
salt hydrolysisThe cations or anions of a dissociated salt remove hydrogen ions from or donate hydrogen ions to water
alkaline (base) solution[OH-] greater than [H+]
endpointpoint of neutralization as indicated by a color change in a titration
ion-product constant for waterKw = [H+][OH-] = 1 x 10^-14
neutral solution[OH-] and [H+] = 1 X 10^-7
amphotericdescribes a substance that can act as both an acid and a base
conjugate acid-base pairtwo substances that are related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion
hydronium ionH3O+
base dissociation constantKb = ([conjugate acid][OH-])/[base]
buffer capacitythe amount of acid or base that can be added to a buffer before a significant change in pH occurs
conjugate acidparticle formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion
conjugate baseparticle remaining when an acid donates a hydrogen ion
diprotic acidacids containing two ionizable hydrogens
Lewis acidsubstance that accepts a pair of electrons in a reaction
Lewis basesubstance that donates a pair of electrons in a reaction
Arrhenius acidsubstances that release hydrogen ions (H+) in aqueous solution
Arrhenius basesubstances the release hydroxide ions (OH-) in aqueous solution
Brönsted-Lowry acidsubstance that is a hydrogen ion donor
Brönsted-Lowry basesubstance that is a hydrogen ion acceptor
monoprotic acidacids containing one ionizable hydrogen
neutralization reactionreactions in which an acid and a base react to produce a salt and water
pH values between 0 and 7represent acidic solutions
pH values between 7 and 14represent alkaline (basic) solutions
pH value equal to 7represents a neutral solution
acid-base indicatorschemicals that change color in different ranges of pH values
salt hydolysisthe cations or anions of a dissociated salt remove or donate hydrogent ions to water
self-ionizationthe reaction in which water molecules produce ions H2O(l) -> H+(aq) + OH-(aq)
standard solutionthe solution of known concentration in a titration
strong acidare completely ionized to release H+ ions in aqueous solution, have larger Ka values
strong baseare completely ionized to release OH- ions in aqueous solution, have larger Kb values
titrationprocess of adding a known amount of a solution of known concentration to determine the concentration of another solution
triprotic acidacids containing three ionizable hydrogenss
weak acidionizes only slightly in aqueous solution to release H+ ions, have small Ka values
weak baseionizes only slightly in aqueous solution to release OH- ions, have small Kb values

Science Instructor
Bronxville High School
Bronxville, NY

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