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Forces, Work, Energy, & Power

Learn the basic vocabulary for the beginning study of these concepts. Used in 7th grade science.

FORCEa push or a pull that causes an object to change its shape or motion
VECTORan arrow that represents the amount of force and direction in which a force is exerted
NEWTONthe basic metric unit of force
WEIGHTa force caused by the pull of GRAVITY on an object's MASS
POWERdescribes how fast work is done; work divided by time (W/t)
JOULEthe basic metric unit of work or energy; work done when 1 newton is exerted through 1 meter
WATTmetric unit of POWER; 1 joule of work is done in 1 second
FRICTIONforce that resists movement; apparent when materials rub
LUBRICANTmaterial that reduces friction; oil, grease, water, graphite, etc.
WORKa force moved through a distance; FORCE x DISTANCE (Fxd)
ENERGYthe ability to do WORK
LAW of CONSERVATION OF ENERGYEnergy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed in form
GRAVITYa pulling force exerted by all matter based on its mass and distance from another object
ROLLING FRICTIONfriction present whenever objects roll; wheels, ball bearings, rollers, etc.
SLIDING FRICTIONcaused by 2 solid objects rubbing against each other
FLUID FRICTIONfriction force produced by an object moving through a gas or liquid
FLUIDany gas or liquid
MASSthe amount of matter in an object or substance (measured in grams)

Science 7 teacher
Maple Avenue Middle School
Saratoga Springs, NY

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