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Chapter 04 "Properties of Matter and the Analysis of Glass"

Use these activities to learn the new vocabulary and major concepts presented in this chapter

amorphous solidsolid in which the constituent atoms or molecules are arranged in random or disordered positions
atomsmallest unit of an element; not divisible by ordinary chemical means
Becke linebright halo observed near the border of a particle immersed in a liquid of a different refractive index
birefringencedifference in the two indices of refraction exhibited by most crystalline materials
Celsius scaletemperature scale using the melting point of ice as 0° and the boiling point of water as 100°, with 100 equal divisions or degrees between
chemical propertybehavior of a substance when it combines with another substance
compoundpure substance created by combining two or more elements
concentric fracturecrack in glass that forms a rough circle around the point of impact
crystalline solidsolid in which the atoms have a regular arrangement
densityphysical property of matter that is equivalent to the mass per unit volume
dispersionseparation of light into its component wavelengths
electromagnetic spectrumentire range of radiation energy from the most energetic cosmic rays to the least energetic radio waves
elementfundamental particle of matter that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
Fahrenheit scaletemperature scale using the melting point of ice as 32° and the boiling point of water as 212°, with 180 equal divisions or degrees between
frequencynumber of waves that pass a given point per second
gas (vapor)state of matter in which the attractive forces between molecules are small enough to permit them to move with complete freedom
intensive propertyproperty that is not dependent on the size/amount of an object
extensive propertyproperty that is dependent on the size/amount of an object
laminated glasstwo sheets of ordinary glass bonded together with a plastic film
laseracronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; light that has all its waves pulsating in unison
liquidstate of matter in which molecules are in contact with one another but are not rigidly held in place
massconstant property of matter that reflects the amount of material present
matterthings of substance composed of atoms or molecules
periodic tablechart of elements arranged in a systematic fashion
groups (families)vertical rows in periodic table
series (period)horizontal rows in periodic table
phaseuniform body of matter separated by definite visible boundaries
photonsmall packet of electromagnetic radiation energy
physical propertybehavior of a substance without having to alter the substance's composition
physical statecondition or stage in the form of matter; a solid, liquid, or gas
radial fracturecrack in glass that extends outward like the spoke of a wheel from the point at which the glass was struck
refractionbending of a light wave as it passes from one medium to another
refractive indexratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to its speed in a given substance
solidstate of matter in which the molecules are held closely together in a rigid state
sublimationphysical change from the solid state directly into the gaseous state
tempered glassglass that is strengthened by introducing stress through rapid heating and cooling of the glass surfaces
visible lightcolored light ranging from red to violet in the electromagnetic spectrum
wavelengthdistance between crests of adjacent waves
weightproperty of matter that depends on both the mass of a substance and the effects of gravity on that mass
X-rayhigh-energy, short-wavelength form of electromagnetic radiation

Science Instructor
Bronxville High School
Bronxville, NY

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