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AP Chapter 54 - Ecosystem Ecology (detailed)

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AB
What is the definition of an ecosystem?An ecosystem consists of all the organisms in the community PLUS all the abiotic factors with which they interact.
_____ flows through ecosystems while _____ cycles within them.Energy, matter
What is the first law of thermodynamics?Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed (also known as the principle of conservation of energy)
In any energy transformation, some energy is always "lost" to the environment as ____.heat
Energy flowing through ecosystems is ultimately _____.dissipated into space as heat.
The trophic level that ultimately supports all other trophic levels is the ____, also called the ____.primary producers, a.k.a. autotrophs
What are the four different types of autotrophs?Plants, algae (photosynthetic Protists), and photosynthetic prokaryotes (photosynthetic bacteria) all produce their own food through photosynthesis. A fourth type of producer, the chemosynthetic prokaryotes make their own food using energy from simple chemicals, usually near volcanic vents at the bottom of the ocean.
All organisms from the second trophic level on are called ____, a.k.a. ____.heterotrophs, consumers
Organisms in the second trophic levels are called ____ or ____.primary consumers, herbivores
Organisms in the third trophic level are called ____ or ____.secondary consumers, carnivores (although you could find an omnivore at this level)
Organisms in the fourth trophic level would be called ____.tertiary consumers
Another word for decomposer is ____.detritivore
Another word for detritivore is ____.decomposer
Non-living organic matter is called ____.detritus
The two main types of decomposers are ____ and ____.prokaryotes (bacteria) and fungi
The amount of light energy converted into chemical energy during a given time period is an ecosystem's _____.primary production
Total primary production in an ecosystem is known as the ecosystem's _____.gross primary production (GPP)
What is net primary production (NPP) equal to?Net primary production (NPP) = Gross primary production (GPP) - energy that is used by the producers for respiration (R)
What are two ways to measure net primary production?Net primary production can be measured in Joules per unit area per year (Joules are a unit of energy), or as biomass of producers per unit area per year (since the mass of a plant minus the water is proportional to the amount of energy stored in the plant)
Which type of ecosystem accounts for most of the net primary productivity on Earth even though it has a low average net primary productivity?The open oceans account for most of the net primary productivity on the planet even though they have one of the lowest average net primary productivities simply because they cover by far the most area on Earth (65%). Tropical rain forests come in a close second even though they cover only 3.3% of the Earth's surface (and that figure is getting smaller every day)
Which terrestrial ecosystem has the highest average net primary productivity?tropical rain forests.,
Which freshwater ecosystem has the highest average net primary productivity?swamps and marshes,
Which two marine ecosystems have the highest average net primary productivity?coral reefs and algal beds,
Overall, terrestrial ecosystems contribute about ____ of the global net primary production while marine ecosystems contribute about ____two-thirds, one-third
Most of the primary productivity in the open oceans occurs near the surface where phytoplankton live because more than half of solar radiation is absorbed by the time it reaches a depth of ____.1 meter
A ____ is something that must be added in order for production to increase in a certain area.limiting nutrient (It is limiting because it is in short supply and therefor limits autotroph growth)
What are the two nutrients that are most likely to be limiting nutrients in an aquatic ecosystem?nitrogen and phosphorus
Besides nitrogen and phosphorus, what is a limiting nutrient often found (in too short of a supply) way out at sea?Iron (because it is usually delivered to the ocean as windblown dust, so the further out from land you are, the smaller the concentration usually)
Nutrient-rich areas of the ocean are characterized by areas of _____.upwelling (Sediments deep in the ocean are nutrient rich but do no good unless they can reach the phytoplankton near the surface. Cold oceans that experience turn-over due to sinking cold water are often more nutrient-rich than warm water oceans that usually remain stratified)
Two main causes of cultural eutrophication are ____ and ____.sewage, fertilizer runoff from farms (Remember, eutrophication is the process of water becoming more nutrient-rich which leads to algal blooms),
Primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems correlates most strongly with higher rates of _____.evapotranspiration (the combination of evaporation from the landscape and from plants by transpiration)
Actual evapotranspiration in a region increases with increasing _____ and _____.precipitation and solar energy reaching the surface
If a caterpillar feeds on a plant leaf that has 100 Joules of energy in it, and the caterpillar stores 20 Joules as new caterpillar biomass, burns 40 Joules for its own energy needs by respiration, and can't digest the other 40 Joules but instead passes it out as fecal matter, what is the net secondary production, the assimilation of primary production, and the production efficiency?The assimilation is 60 Joules. Of that, 20 Joules was used for net secondary production (growth of the caterpillar). So the production efficiency is 20 J/60 J = 33% (You don't count the 40 Joules that wasn't assimilated but was instead passed out the anus)
_______ efficiency refers to the energy processing efficiency of a single organism while _____ efficiency refers to the efficiency of an entire level of the ecological pyramid.Production efficiency, trophic efficiency
______ efficiency is always less than an organism's production efficiency because it takes into account energy lost in _____ and energy from lower trophic levels that is not _____Trophic efficiency, feces, not consumed
______ efficiency is the percentage of production transferred from one trophic level to the next.trophic
Trophic efficiencies usually range from ____ to ____ percent.5 to 20% (which means that 80 to 95% of the energy in lower trophic levels is not passed up and stored as biomass in the next trophic level)
The image below depicts a(n) _____., pyramid of net production,
The image below depicts a(n) _____., biomass pyramid,
The image below demonstrates the concept of _____., biological magnification of toxins,
According to the graph below, what is the limiting nutrient in the salt marsh from which these data were collected?, nitrogen (notice that there was no change when only phosphorus was added),
What does the graph below suggest?, Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are strongly correlated with global warming.,
In this pyramid of net production, how much energy will be found at each level if the trophic efficiency is 10%?, .,
What are the implications of this diagram?, More people in this world could be fed if we ate a vegetarian diet instead of feeding our vegetarian diet to cows (and chickens, pigs, etc.) and then eating their meat.,
In marine ecosystems, there is usually a smaller standing crop of phytoplankton (primary producers) than zooplankton (primary consumers). Explain how this can be.If you measured all the biomass of phytoplankton that grew over a year, the productivity would be much higher than the zooplankton. However, the standing crop of phytoplankton at any given time is small because they get eaten quickly, keeping their numbers low. Phytoplankton have what is called a "short turnover time."
Turnover time = ?standing crop biomass divided by production per day.
According to the _______ hypothesis, terrestrial herbivores consume relatively little of the overall plant biomass because they are held in check by a variety of factors, including _____, ______, and ______.green world hypothesis, predators, parasites, and disease
In the water cycle, water changes from the liquid to the gaseous form by ____.evaporation
In the water cycle, water changes from the gaseous to the liquid form by ____.condensation
Condensed water in the atmosphere that falls toward Earth is called ____.precipitation
Water evaporates from the surface of leaves in a process called ____.transpiration,
The element that forms the backbone of all organic molecules is ____.carbon
A crucial element needed to make amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids is ____.nitrogen
The atmosphere is approximately 80% _____ gas.nitrogen
In the nitrogen cycle, the conversion by bacteria of nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into ammonia is called ____.nitrogen fixation,
In the nitrogen cycle, the conversion by bacteria of the ammonium ion into the nitrate ion is called ____., nitrification,
Organic nitrogen (like that found in decomposing proteins) is converted by bacteria into the ammonium ion in a process called ____.ammonification,
Under anaerobic conditions, bacteria can convert the nitrate ion into ____ during the process of denitrifcation., N2 (gaseous nitrogen)
Under anaerobic conditions, bacteria can convert the nitrate ion into N2 (gaseous nitrogen) during the process of _______., denitrification
The element that is crucial for the formation of nucleic acids, ATP and phospholipids is _____.phosphorus
The ion below is called the ____., .,
The ion below is called the ____., .,
The ion below is called the ____., .,
The ion below is called the ____., .,
Of the major nutrient cycles, which have a significant gaseous component of the cycle?The carbon, nitrogen and water cycles (Phosphorus does not)
In tropical rainforest, most of the organic material is stored in the ____.trunks of trees
In tropical rainforest,very little organic matter is found in ____.the soil
In temperate forests, most of the organic material is stored in ____.the soil
When the amount of nitrogen from fertilizer exceeds the critical load, it can ____.leach into groundwater or runoff into streams or lakes.
Sulfur and nitrogen oxides released into the air can mix with water in the atmosphere to form ______.acid rain (sulfuric and nitric acid)
Precipitation with a pH less than ___ is considered to be acid precipitation.5.6
Which insecticide underwent biological magnification in the food chain and nearly wiped out some bird species?DDT
Which problem, caused by the release of CFC's, increased the amount of harmful solar radiation reaching Earth's surface?Thinning of the ozone layer.
Which gas absorbs longer wave radiation from the Earth's surface, slowing the release of heat energy from Earth into space?carbon dioxide (methane does an even better job of this, but hasn't increased as much and isn't as prevalent as carbon dioxide)
Which gas is a dangerous pollutant at ground level, but is needed in the upper atmosphere because it is good at absorbing dangerous solar radiation, blocking it most of it from reaching Earth's surface?ozone (O3)
Which pollutant acts as a catalyst to break down ozone in the upper atmosphere?CFC's
Any of the various nutrient circuits, which involve both biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems.Biogeochemical cycle
The amount of light energy converted to chemical energy (organic compounds) by autotrophs in an ecosystem during a given time period.primary production
The time required to replace the standing crop of a population or group of populations (for example, of phytoplankton), calculated as the ratio of standing crop to production.turnover time
The fraction of food energy that is not used for respiration.production efficiency
The warming of planet Earth due in large part to the atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide, which absorbs infrared radiation and slows its escape from the irradiated Earth.greenhouse effect
A process by which nutrients, particularly phosphorus and nitrogen, become highly concentrated in a body of water, leading to increased growth of autotrophs such as algae.eutrophication,
The amount of chemical energy in consumers' food that is converted to their own new biomass during a given time period.secondary production
The amount of added nutrient, usually nitrogen or phosphorus, that can be absorbed by plants without damaging ecosystem integrity.critical load
A trophic process in which retained substances become more concentrated with each link in the food chain.biological magnification (a.k.a. biomagnification or bioaccumulation)
Which type of organism is crucial to the nitrogen cycle?prokaryotes (different types of bacteria change nitrogen containing molecules from one form to the next in the nitrogen cycle)
Starting with atmospheric nitrogen, what is the typical sequence of changes that happen in the nitrogen cycle before it can be used by plants?Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) is changed to ammonia (NH3) and then the ammonium ion (NH4+) then to nitrite (NO2-) and then to nitrate (NO3-) before being sucked up by the roots of plants and turned into nitrogen containing compounds such as amino acids)


Truman High School

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