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unit 1: perspectives, etiology, assessment

AB
DSM-IV-TRDiagnostic & Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association; the "gold standard" for diagnosis
RELIABILITYconsistency of measurement; when two diagnosticians agree on the diagnosis
VALIDITYwhen the test measures what it should; when the diagnosis is correct
AXIS Ispecific clinical syndromes such as depression or schizophrenia
AXIS IIpersonality disorders
PSYCHIATRISTmental health professional who is a medical doctor, can prescribe medication
EPIDEMIOLOGYthe study of the incidence and prevalence of a disease in a population
CASE STUDYan in-depth study of one patient with the disease
RETROSPECTIVEa survey of known cases of the disease, reconstructing their past
PROSPECTIVEa longitudinal study of people, starting from a point in time before the disease was diagnosed
SYNDROMEa characteristic cluster of symptoms which defines a disorder
INSANITYa legal term indicating "not competent to manage one's own behavior"
EXPERIMENTthe best research technique for determining causation or effectiveness
SYMPTOMSobservable results of a disorder, or subjective patient reports
CLINICALbranch of psychology working with mental patients
DIAGNOSISinferring a disorder based upon observation of symptoms
MALADAPTIVENESSthe key factor in abnormal behavior
REMISSIONwhen symptoms subside
BIOMEDICALthe perspective of Hippocrates & Kraepelin
COMORBIDITYwhen two symptoms overlap
DIATHESISpredisposing causes of heredity, early childhood and culture constitute the
ETIOLOGYthe causal nexus of a disorder
FALSE POSITIVEa patient falsely labeled as having a disorder
PSYCHOANALYSISFreud's perspective
RELAPSEwhen the patient comes down with the same disorder again
EXORCISMmagico-religious cure for mental disorders; casting out of evil spirits
HIPPOCRATESGreek physician; classified disorders; "mental disorders not due to demons but to bodily causes"
BENJAMIN RUSHfounder of American Psychiatric Association
DOROTHEA DIX19th century reformer for humane treatment of the insane
ALIENIST19th century term for psychiatrist
EMIL KRAEPELIN19th century psychiatrist; pioneer in classification of mental disorders
SIGMUND FREUDfounder of psychoanalysis
CATHARSISa release of emotion, supposedly purifying and curative
PRINCIPALthe primary, or most important cause
PREDISPOSINGthe diathesis, a background condition which makes the individual more susceptible or vulnerable
PRECIPITATINGan event which triggers the onset of the disorder (e.g., stress)
PERPETUATINGa reinforcing cause which keeps the disorder going in a vicious cycle
ETIOLOGYthe study of the causes or origins of a disorder
NEUROTRANSMITTERSchemicals at the synapse; the focus of the bio-medical viewpoint
HUMANISMthe perspective of Adler & Rogers: people are basically good
COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORALemphasizes learning; (e.g., Aaron Beck)
ECLECTICapproach which attempts to synthesize various perspectives
VICIOUS CYCLEa perpetuating cause can sustain this
BIO-MEDICALneuroscience approach emphasizing anatomy and metabolism


Professor of Psychology
Crafton Hills College
Long Beach, CA

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