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Apologia Biology - Chapter 13: Phylum Chordata

Vocabulary from Module 13 of Apologia's High School Biology course Exploring Creation With Biology by Dr. Jay Wile and Marilyn F. Durnell

AB
AnadromousA lifecycle in which creatures are hatched in fresh water, migrate to salt water as adults, and then go back to fresh water in order to reproduce
Appendicular skeletonThe portion of the skeleton that attaches to the axial skeleton and has the limbs attached to it
ArteriesBlood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
AtriumA heart chamber that receives blood
Axial skeletonThe portion of the skeleton that supports and protects the head, neck, and trunk
BileA mixture of salts and phospholipids that aids in the breakdown of fat
Bone marrowA soft tissue inside the bone that produces blood cells
CapillariesTiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and cells
CerebellumThe lobe that controls involuntary actions and refines muscle movement
CerebrumThe lobes of the brain that integrate sensory information and coordinate the creature's response to that information
Closed circulatory systemA circulatory system in which the oxygen-carrying blood cells never leave the blood vessels
EctothermicLacking an internal mechanism for regulating body heat
EndoskeletonA skeleton on the inside of a creature's body, typically composed of bone or cartilage
External fertilizationThe process by which the female lays eggs and the male fertilizes them once they are outside of the female
HibernationA state of extremely low metabolism
Internal fertilizationThe process by which the male places sperm inside the female's body, where the eggs are fertilized
Medulla oblongataThe lobes that coordinate vital functions, such as those of the circulatory and respiratory systems, and transport signals from the brain to the spinal cord
NotochordA rod of tough, flexible material that runs the length of a creature's body, providing the majority of its support
Olfactory lobesThe regions of the brain that receive signals from the receptors in the nose
Optic lobesThe regions of the brain that receive signals from the receptors in the eyes
Oviparous developmentdevelopment that occurs in an egg which is hatched outside the female's body
Ovoviviparous developmentdevelopment that occurs in an egg which is hatched inside the female's body
VeinsBlood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
VentricleA heart chamber from which blood is pumped out
VertebraeSegments of bone or some other hard substance that are arranged in a backbone
Viviparous developmentdevelopment that occurs inside the female, allowing the offspring to gain nutrients and vital substances from the mother through a placenta



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