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Earth Science - Plate Tectonics

Chapter 4 - Plate Tectonics

SEISMIC WAVEA vibration that travels through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake.
CRUSTThe layer of rock that forms Earth's outer surface.
MANTLEThe layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core.
OUTER COREA layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth.
SONARUsed to map the ocean floor and aided in the discovery of the MOR
CONVECTION CURRENTThe movement of a fluid, caused by differences in temperature, that transfers heat from one part of the fluid to another.
PANGAEAThe name of the single landmass that broke apart 225 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents.
CONTINENTAL DRIFTThe hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earth's surface.
FOSSILThe preserved remains or traces of living things.
MID-OCEAN RIDGEThe undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary.
SEA-FLOOR SPREADINGThe process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor.
DEEP-OCEAN TRENCHA deep valley along the ocean floor through which oceanic crust slowly sinks toward the mantle.
SUBDUCTIONThe process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary.
PLATEA section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere, carrying pieces of continental and oceanic crust.
PLATE TECTONICSThe theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle.
FAULTA break or crack in Earth's lithosphere along which the rocks move.
TRANSFORM BOUNDARYA plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite direction.
DIVERGENT BOUNDARYA plate boundary where two plates move away from each other.
RIFT VALLEYA deep valley that forms where two plates move apart.
CONVERGENT BOUNDARYA plate boundary where two plates move toward each other.
ALFRED WEGENERProposed theory in 1915 that earths continents were moving
EARTHQUAKEAny seismic vibration of the earths surface
BRITTLEHow scientist describe the earths' surface or crust
ELASIC REBOUNDThe rapid release of stored energy along a fault line
FOCUSThe point where the energy is released along a fault line
BODY WAVESS-waves & P-waves make up this type of earthquake wave
SURFACE WAVESThis type of earthquake wave only travels along the earths' surface
ROLLING MOTIONThis type of movement describes a surface wave
RICHTER SCALEMeasurement of an earthquake using a siesmograph

Coral Springs High School
Coral Springs, FL

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