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Grade 4 - New York State Science Test (ESPET) Vocabulary Practice

rotationthe spinning motion of an object on its axis. It is the reason for day and night because it takes 24 hours for the Earth to make one complete rotation
revolutionThe movement of an object around another object or point. It takes about 365 days (one year) for Earth to make one revolution around the Sun.
CelciusUnit of measure for temperature (in the metric system) at which water freezes at zero degrees and boils at 100 degrees.
decomposerA living thing that breaks down the remains of dead organisms.
consumerA living thing that obtains (gets) energy by eating other living things.
producerAn organism (green plant) that makes its own food through photosynthesis.
photosynthesisThe process by which producers (green plants) make their own food by using energy from the Sun
food chainThe path of energy transfer from one living organism to another.
food webThe overlapping food chains that link producers, consumers, and decomposers in an ecosystem.
condensationThe process by which water vapor is changed to liquid water
germinationbeginning to develop into a seedling (sprouting)
particlea very small piece; a very tiny piece of matter smaller than an atom
cyclea complete set of events that keep coming back in the same order
gramunit of measure for mass or weight(metric system) one of these is about the weight of a paper clip
kilogramunit of measurement for mass. About the weight of a kitten
solar energyenergy produced by the sun
precipitationthe falling of water, ice, or snow (formed by condensation)
life cycleseries of stages in the life of an organism
carbon dioxidea gas in the air that is needed by green plants to make food
oxygena gas in the air that is given off by the leaves of green plants
populationa number of the same kind of organisms that live in the same place
organisma living thing
observationanything that we can learn by using our senses
carnivorea consumer that eats only animals
omnivorea consumer that eats both animals and plants
herbivorea consumer that eats only plants
variablesomething that can be changed during an experiment, such as the materials, equipment or procedure, to see if it changes the results
densitycloseness or compactness of molecules (amount of mass in a given volume of matter)
sinkthis occurs when an object stays under the water when a material has more density than the water
buoyancythe ability to float
propertycharacteristic of a material; something you can observe such as color, smell, or taste
absorbwhen water soaks into another material
capacityamount of space inside a container of shape
displacementwater that is pushed aside when something is placed on it
predatoran animal that hunts other animals for food
preyan animal hunted as food by another animal
insulatora poor conductor of heat or electricity such as rubber, paper, or plastic
conductora type of material that transfers heat or electricity (allows electic current to pass through easily
adaptationbehavior or part of a living thing that helps it survive in a certain environment
camouflagethe ability to blend in with the surroundings
communitya group of plants and animals that live in a certain area
environmentall the surrounding living and non-living things that affect a living thing
evaporateto change form from a liquid to a gas
extinctionthe permanent disappearance of all living things of a certain kind
endangeredan animal or plant in danger of becoming extinct or dying off.
hibernationa deep sleep that helps some animals survive the winter
meltto change form from a solid to a liquid
migrateto move to another region as the seasons change
larvathe second stage in the life cycle of an insect that undergoes complete metamorphosis (the young form of the organism)
metamorphosisa change in form that some animals go through in developing
natural resourcea material found in or on the Earth that people use
orbitthe path a planet, moon or other object takes around another
petalthe brightly colored part of a flower that helps attract birds, bees, and other insects to the flower
pistilthe central part in a flower that produces the seed
pollenthe powdery grains in a flower; they must be carried from a stamen to a pistil in order for seeds to form
pollinationthe process by which pollen reaches a pistil
pollutedcontaining unwanted or harmful material
pupathe third stage in the life cycle of an insect undergoing a complete metamorphosis(the insect is inactive)
speciesa group of living things that can produce young by mating with one another
stamenthe part of a flower that produces pollen, which is needed to form seeds
temperaturehow hot or cold something is
watera chemical formed from hydrogen and oxygen, that is essential to life
water cyclethe path that water follows from Earth to air and back again (water evaporates from lakes, oceans and mountain runoff into the air, and then condenses and falls back to Earth as precipitation, rain or snow)
water vaporwater that is a gas
batterya device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy
nonconductora material that does not allow electric current to pass through easily
terminalthe contact point on a battery and bulb that must be touched in order to form a complete circuit
circuitscomplete or partial paths through which electrical current may flow
switchesa device that opens or closes a circuit
series circuita circuit which has only one path through which electricity can flow
parallel circuita circuit which provides multiple paths through which electricity can flow
currentthe flow of electricity in a wire or other conductor
electricitya form of energy that is used to produce light
light bulba device that produces light from electricity
erosionthe carryng away of rocks and soil by wind and water
experimenta test under controlled conditions that helps us learn more about something
predictguessing or foretelling (from previous information) what will happen before you do an experiment
resultwhat happens during the experiment
evidenceproof that is left when an interaction takes place
attractto draw near or closer
hypothesisan educated guess; tentatively accepting an explanation as the basis for further investigation
interactionwhen one object changes another
repelto force away
solida substance with a definite shape and volume. One of the states of water (ice)
slopea slanted surface
surface tensionthe skin like surface on water that pulls it together into the smallest possible area
cargoa load of goods carried by a form of transportation such as a boat
ecosysteman area in which living and nonliving things interact

Oaks School #3
Oceanside, NY

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