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Psychology Match

W. WundtBiological perspective
S. FreudPsychoanalytic perspective
I. PavlovLearning
J. PiagetEarly Childhood Development
KohlbergMoral Development
A. MaslowHierarchy of Needs
C. RogersHumanistic perspective
"Father of Psychology"W. Wundt
Specialize in Human Emotional ProblemsClinical Psychologists
Definition of Gestalt"whole"
Correlational ResearchMeasures degree of relationship between 2 variables
HypothesisTestable prediction
Independent variableVariable that is manipulated by researcher
Control groupGroup not subjected to influence of independent variable
Experimental groupResearch participants subjected to changes in independent variable
DendritesTree-like branches that receive information
Cell bodyRegulates life processes in neuron
AxonConducts action potential
Myelin sheathInsulates axon; accelerates nerve impluse
SynapseSpace between axon of one neuron & dendrites of another neuron
AChneurotransmitter that triggers muscle movement
DopamineRegulates behavior & emotions
EndorphinsNatural pain killer
NorepinephrineArousal; Depression and Panic Disorder
SerotoninMood regulation,pleasure, sleep/wake cycle, eating behavior
Peripheral Nervous SystemConduct nerve impulses from receptors to the spinal cord, brain, and muscles
Autonomic Nervous SystemRegulates involuntary and automatic responses of organism
Sypathetic Branchflight-or-fight reaction
Parasympathetic Branchrelaxation and response
Frontal Lobeanticipate consequences of actions
Motor association areacoordination of complex movement
Motor cortexinitiation of voluntary movement
Somatosensory Cortexreceives tactile information from the body
Sensory association areaprocessing of multisensory information
Visual association areacomplex processing of visual information
Occipital Lobedetection of simple visual stimuli
Temporal Lobedetection of sound quality (tone, loudness)
Broca's areaspeech production and articulation
Spinal CordTransmission of messages from CNS to body; reflexes
MedullaControls: breathing, blood pressure, heart rate
Reticular FormationHelps control arousal
CerebellumMotor coordination and balance
AmygdalaLinked to fear and agression
HypothalamusMotivated behavior including hunger, sex, and thirst centers
Limbic SystemEmotions, learning, memory
Pituitary Gland"Master gland", controls growth and metabolism
Thyroid GlandRegulates oxygen metabolism
ParathyroidsNecessary for life; affects calcium and phosphorous metabolism
PancreasSecretes insulin; storage and burning of sugar
AdrenalsPrepares the body for emergency action
Helmholtz's Resonance TheoryPitch is determined by the Corti that is stimulated by frequency
Frequency TheoryPitches depend upon the rate of vibration of the basilar membrane in response to incoming sound
Volley TheoryHair cells fire in a sequence; rapid fires allow for high frequencies
Place TheoryFrequency perception depends on amouint of displacement by traveling waves in the cochlea
IVExperiment factor that is manipulated
DVExperiment factor that is measured
Placebo"Sugar Pill"
Double-Blind ProcedureBoth subject and research staff are ignorant to the placebo or the real treatment
Biological psychologyLinks between biology and behavior
Neuronbasic building block of NS
DendriteBushy extensions that recieve messages
Action PotentialBrief electrical charge that travels down the axon
thresholdlevel of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
CNSbrain and spinal cord
Skeletal Nervous Systemcontrols the body's skeletal muscles
Adrenal glandsJust above the kidneys, helps arouse the body in times of stress
EEGrecording of electrical activity that sweeps across the brains surface
PET scandetects glucose activity in the brain while subject is doing a given task
MRIallos us to see structures within the brain
CAT scanseries of x-ray photos combined to look like a slice throught the brain
BrainstemCentral core of brain, responsible for automatic survival functions
ThalamusSensory switchboard
Aphasia is caused bydamage to Broca's area or Wernicke's
Broca's areadirects muscle movement
Wernicke's areainvolves language comprehension
Corpus callosumlargest bundle of neural fibers that connect the two hemispheres of the brain and transmit messages between them
Split brainwhere the two hemispheres of the brain are cut at the corpus callosum
Evolutionary psychologyinvolved with natural selection
Behavior geneticsstudy of genetic AND evironmental influences on behavior
HeritabilityPersonalitity/behavior that can be attributed to genes
sensationprocess where sensory and nervous system recieve and represent stimuli
perceptionprocess of organizing and interpreting sensory information
bottom-up processingbegins with the sensory receptors & works up to brain's higher levels
top-down processingconstructs perceptions using our experience and expectations
Psychophysicsstudy between physical stimuli and psychological experience of them
Absolute thresholdminimum stimulation needed to detect a certain stimuli
difference thresholdminimum difference that we can detect between two stimuli
sensory adaptationdiminished sensitivity because of a constant stimulation
transductionchange from one energy to another
huedimension of color by wavelength of light
pupiladjustable opening in the center of the eye
irisforms colored portion of the eye
lensbehind pupil, changes shape to focus images on the retina
retinacontains receptor rods and cones, processes visual information
nearsightednessnear objects are seen more clearly than far ones
farsightednessfar objects are seen more clearly thasn near objects
rodsretinal receptors that detect black, grey, and white
conesdetect fine detail and color
optic nervenerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
foveacentral focal point in retina, where the eye's cones cluster

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