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Chapter 4 - Maps

Understanding maps

cartographythe science of map making
Ptolemyfirst to put north at the top of a map
latitudeimaginary lines, running east and west around the earth, never meet or cross
longitudeimaginary lines that run from the North Pole to the South Pole, touch at the poles
parallelsanother name for lines of latitude
meridiansanother name for lines of longitude
equatorimaginary line that divides the earth into two equal halves, Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere
prime meridianline representing 0 degrees longitude
international date lineline representing 180 degrees longitude
Mercator projectionmap projection that shows all parallels and meridians at right angles to each other
Polar projectionmap projection that are made as if the observer were looking down on the world from the North or South Pole, is circular
Conic projectionmap projection that is used to show relatively small areas of the world without much distortion of any landmasses, road maps
benchmarkbronze marker that identifies places that have been precisely surveyed, shows location and elevation
Map scaleshows the relationship between a distance on a map and a distance on the earth
verbal scalemap scale that equates two different units, often found on road maps
fractional scalemap scale that shows the ratio of a represented distance on a map to the actual distance on the earth's surface
graphic scalemap scale that consists of a measured line marked off in specific distances
legendlists of all the symbols used on a map and tells what they represent
topographical mapshows the shape of the land with lines
contour linesa pattern of lines used to represent elevation
index contourslabeled contour lines
hydrological mapshows where surface and underground water is located
geological mapuse patterns or colors and symbols to show layers of rock at or just below the earth's surface
dipis the angle at which a rock layer is tilted from a horizontal plane
strick the line formed where a rock layer intersects the horizontal plane
geomorphologythe study of the earth's forms, or landforms
geomorphic provincesareas with distinctive landforms and topography

Miss Foresman

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