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Metabolism: Transformations and Interactions

Breaking down of nutrients for energy.

AB
acetyl CoAa 2-carbon compound (acetate, or acetic acid) to which a molecule of CoA is attached
aerobicrequiring oxygen
ammoniaa compound with the chemical formula NH3; produced during the deamination of amino acids
anabolismreactions in which small molecules are put together to build larger ones.
Anabolic reactionsrequire energy
ATP(adenosine triphosphate)a common high-energy compound composed of a purine, a sugar, and 3 phosphate groups
catabolismreactions in which large molecules are broken down to smaller ones.
Catabolic reactionsrelease energy
CoA (coenzyme A)the conenzyme derived from the B vitamin pantothenic acid and central to the energy metabolism of nutrients
Cori cyclethe path from muscle glycogen to pyruvate to lactic acid to glucose to glycogen
coupled reactionspairs of chemical reaction in which energy released from the breakdown of one compound is used to create a bond in the formation of another compound
energy metabolismthe chemical reaction by which the body obtains and spends the energy from food
fatty acid oxidationthe metabolic breakdown of fatty acids to acetyl CoA
glycolysisthe metabolic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate. Does not require oxygen.
keto acidan organic acid that contains a carbonyl group (C=O)
lactic acidan acid produced from pyruvate during anaerobic metabolism
metabolismthe sum total of all the chemical reactions that go on in living cells
photosynthesisthe process by which green plants make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water using the green pigment chlorophyll to trap the sun's energy
pyruvate (pyruvic acid)a 3 carbon compound that, in metabolism, can be derived from glucose, certain amino acids, or glycerol
transaminationthe transfer of an amino group from one amino acid to a keto acid, produced a new nonessential amino acid and a new keto acid
ureathe principal nitrogen-excretion product of metabolism. 2 ammonia fragments combine with carbon dioxide to form this
hydrolysisis an example of catabolic reaction
the pathway from pyruvate to acetyl CoAis metabolically irreversible
During a fast, the body produces ketone bodies bycondensing acetyl CoA
The body stores energy for future use intriglycerides


Nancy

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