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Basic World History Terms and Definitions

republica government in which citizens elect the leaders
aristocracygovernment by the best individuals or by a small privileged class
constitutiona plan of government
moderateone who holds moderate views or one who belongs to a moderate group favoring a moderate course or program
minorityA part of a population differing from others in some characteristics and often subjected to differential treatment
solona. a wise and skillful lawgiver. b. A member of a legislative body
reparationcompensation for war damage
nationa community of people composed of one or more nationalities and possessing a more or less defined territory and government
patriarchin the early Christian Church, one of five powerful bishops in major cities
theocracygovernment headed by religious leaders or a leader regarded as a god
federala supporter in the Civil War; especially a soldier in the federal armies
guerillaa person who engages in irregular warfare as a member of an independent unit carrying out harassment and sabotage
nationalismpride in one’s own nation’s desire for independence
martial lawtemporary military rule limiting rights such as free speech
buffer zonea neutral area separating conflicting forces; an area designed to separate
dynastya line of rulers who belong to the same family
Democracyform of government in which the citizens hold power
Despota Byzantine emperor or prince; a bishop or patriarch of the Eastern Orthodox Church; a ruler with absolute power or authority
Medievala person of the middle ages
Agrariana member of an agrarian party or movement; of or relating to lands or their tenure
Conservativetending or disposed to maintain existing views, conditions, or institutions; traditional
Regenta person who acts as a temporary ruler
Indemnitypayment for damages or losses
Countrya political state or nation or it’s territory
Heretica dissenter from established church dogma; especially a baptized member of the Roman Catholic Church who disavows a revealed truth
Capitalisman economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, by investments that are determined by private decision, and by prices, production, and by the distribution of words that are determined mainly by competition free market.
Socialismpolitical theory that society as a whole should control the means of production, such as factories and land
Coupa brilliant, sudden, and usually highly successful stroke or act
Cedeto yield or grant typically by treaty
Ideologythe system of beliefs and attitudes that guides the actions of a group or nation
Abdicateto brush off responsibility, to relinquish
Schismthe division of the Christian Church in 1054 that separated the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church
Empirea group of territories or nations ruled by a single ruler or government
Absolute Monarchya ruler has complete control over government
Totalitarianismidea that a dictorial government should control all aspects of citizen’s lives
Sovereignone that exercises supreme authority within a limited sphere
Liberalone who is open minded in the observance of orthodox, traditional, or established forms or ways OR an advocate or adherent of liberalism especially in individual rights
Majoritythe quality or state of being greater
Stoica member of a school of philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium about 300 B.C holding that the wise man should be free from passion, unmoved by joy or grief, and submissive to natural law OR one apparently or professedly indifferent to pleasure or pain
Propagandanews and information intended to influence people’s feelings about a cause
Imperialismpolicy of building an empire
Divine Rightpolitical theory that a ruler derives his or her power directly from God and is accountable only to god
Coalitiona temporary alliance to differing political factors
Anarchyabsence of political authority
Nationalizeto bring a private industry under government control
Isolationisma policy of national isolation by abstention from alliances and other international political and economic relations


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