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Control of Body Temperature and Water Balance Flashcards (25.1-25.9)

Control of Body Temperature and Water Balance (Ch.25)

AB
ThermoregulationThe maintenance of internal temperature within narrow/tolerable limits; aided by several adaptations
OsmoregulationThe control of the gain and loss of water and solutes
ExcretionThe disposal of nitrogen-containing wastes
ConductionTransfer of heat between objects that are in direct contact (e.g., a lizard on a hot rock)
ConvectionTransfer of heat by the movement of air or liquid past a surface
RadiationThe emission of electromagnetic waves; can transfer heat between objects that are not in direct contact (e.g., sunlight).
EvaporationThe loss of heat from a surface of a liquid that is losing some of its molecules as a gas
Metabolic Heat ProductionThe heat generated by the cells themselves; also includes heat generated by whole muscles moving together (e.g., shivering)
Thermoregulation via insulationHair, fur, feather, fat layers, blubber
Circulatory adaptations facilitating thermoregulationDilation/constriction of surface blood vessels, countercurrent heat exchange in some animals
Evaporative cooling adaptationsPanting, sweating, spreading saliva on body surfaces
Countercurrent heat exchangeArteries carrying warm blood from the heart also warm cold blood from veins returning to heart; maintains core body temperature
OsmoconformersAnimals that have body fluids with a solute concentration equal to that of seawater (e.g., some sea-dwelling animals)
OsmoregulatorsAnimals that have body fluids whose solute concentrations differ from that of their environment (e.g., freshwater animals)
AmmoniaA nitrogenous waste; highly toxic, water soluble, most aquatic animals have this form
UreaA nitrogenous waste; less toxic, water soluble, mammals, amphibians, sharks have this form
Uric acidA nitrogenous waste; less toxic; water insoluble; secreted as semisolid; most birds have this form
Urinary systemPlays a central role in homeostasis, forms and excretes urine while regulating the amount of water and ions in the body fluids
FiltrateThe fluid extracted from blood by the kidneys; consists of water, urea, and a number of valuable solutes
UreterThe tubes from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
UrethraThe tube from the urinary bladder to the external environment
Renal medullaInner layer of the kidney; high solute concentration
Renal cortexOuter layer of the kidney; low solute concentration
Renal pelvisA chamber that urine from the medulla (inner kidney) empties into
NephronsThe functional unit of the kidney, performing its work “in miniature” – extracting filtrate from the blood and refining it
Bowman’s capsuleThe cup-shaped receiving end (input end) of the nephron
Collecting ductThe output end of the nephron; where final adjustments are made before emptying into the renal pelvis
GlomerulusA ball of capillaries that is enveloped by the Bowman’s capsule; together forming the blood-filtering unit
Proximal tubuleThe “near” tube, helps refine the filtrate. Located in the cortex (outer layer).
Distal tubuleThe “far” tube, also helps refine the filtrate. Located before the collecting duct.
Loop of HenleThe “hairpin” loop that plunges towards the medulla (inner layer of kidney)
FiltrationWhen water and other small molecules are forced through capillary wall in the glomeruli; entering nephron tubules
ReabsorptionWhen water or solutes are reabsorbed into the blood from the nephron tubules
SecretionWhen the blood secretes water, solutes or toxins for disposal in the nephron tubules (urine)
ADHAnti-diuretic hormone. Causes you to retain water.


Lexington, MA

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