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Flash Cards: Isotonic, Hypertonic, and Hypotonic Solutions

Review the information of these flash cards to help you master the movement of water molecules into and out of a cell or unicellular organisms. Enjoy!

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Isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic refer the effects of ___ on a cell.osmosis (movement of water)
What is an isotonic solution?a solution in which the concentration of both solvent (water) and solute are equal on both sides of the cell membrane
What is a hypertonic solution?a solution in which there is a higher concentration of water molecules (solvent) inside a cell than outside a cell
What causes a solution to be hypertonic?There is more solute in the solution surrounding a cell than inside, resulting in a greater amount of water (solvent) inside the cell. The more solute, the less solvent (i.e. water).
What is a hypotonic solution?a solution in which there is a higher concentration of water molecules (solvent) outside a cell than inside a cell
What causes a solution to be hypotonic?There is more solute inside the cell than in the solution surrounding the cell. As a result, there is more water molecules (solvent) surrounding the cell than water molecules inside the cell.
In which type of solution is a cell in homeostasis (balance)?isotonic
An animal cell placed in which type of solution will shrink as water exits through the cell membrane?hypertonic
An animal cell placed in which type of solution will swell (and possibly burst) as water enters the cell?hypotonic
In which type of solution is the net movement (gain) of water molecules equal to zero (0)?isotonic
In which type of solution is there a balance between turgor pressure on the inside of a plant cell and osmotic pressure on the outside of a plant cell?isotonic
When a plant cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, what occurs?Water inside the cell (highest concentration) moves out of the cell (lowest concentration), causing the plant cell to shrink and the plant to wilt. The plant wilts because there is a loss of turgor pressure.
What happens when a plant cell is placed in a hypotonic solution?The greatest concentration of water is outside the cell. Therefore, water enters the cell and fills the central vacuole, causing the contents of the plant cell to press against the cell wall. The plant cell swells and stiffens as turgor pressure increases.
What is the percentage of water molecules in distilled water?100%
When given the percent concentration of solute, how do you calculate the percent concentration of solvent (water)?Subtract the percent concentration of solute from 100%. The difference is the percent concentration of solvent (water).
What is turgor pressure?the pressure exerted by the contents of a plant cell against the cell wall when water enters the central vacuole and surrounding cytoplasm (occurs when a plant cell is placed in a hypotonic solution)
What is osmotic pressure?the force exerted by water outside the cell membrane in plant cells and on both sides of the cell membrane in animal cells
When does osmosis stop?[1] when pressure on both sides of the cell membrane is equal (i.e. turgor = osmotic pressure in plant cells, or when osmotic pressure is the same on both sides of the cell membrane in animal cells) [2] when cells are placed in an isotonic solution
What is a solute?the part of a solution that is dissolved
What is a solvent?the part of a solution that does the dissolving; the part of a solution in which the solute is dissolved
What is the universal solvent?water
What is concentration?the ratio of solute to solvent
What factor controls the direction water molecules move during osmosis?concentration

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