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Environmental Chapter 7 Test

What are the environmental functions of wetlands?filtering pollutants, protecting against floods, buffering shores against erosion, spawning grounds and habitat for wildlife, protecting for endangered species, providing recreational areas
Estuaries are very productive because they receive nutrients from where?rivers and oceans
What causes most coastal pollution in the US?industrial waste and sewage
What adaptation prevents phytoplankton from sinking into deep water?flagella
Where are swamps commony found?flat, poorly drained land
The majority of marine organisms ar found where?shallow coastal areas
What is a new and old river like?beginning: cold, fast, narrow, shallow, high oxygen content end: warm, slow, deep, wide, low oxygen content
What are the threats to ocean ecosystems.1. nutrient runoff and industrial waste 2. overfishing and entanglement of wildlife in fishing nets
The types of organisms found in a pond or lake depend upon what?1. amount of sunlight 2. temperature of water 3. presence of nutrients
In what zone if life diverse and abundant?littoral zone
In what zone is the water cool and dark?benthic zone
Even though estuaries break down pollutants over time why is it still considered a problem?it is the volume of the pollutants, more than the time factor, that harms estuaries
What distinguishes nekton from benthos?nekton swims freely while benthos often live attached to a hard surface
What organism produces most of the food in an aquatic ecosystem?phytoplankton
The arrangement of organism in the open ocean is determined by what?amount of nutrients and sunlight that are available
An estuary functions as a mineral trap due to what?the mixing action of river water and ocean water
Coral reefs are formed as a result of what?the secretion of calcium carbonate by tiny marine animals
What are the two main types of freshwater wetlands?marshes and swamps
What are the characteristics of salt marshes?grasses, coastal areas, salty
What are the characteristics of mangrove swamps?woody plants, coastal areas, salty
Which ecosystem has the highest level of salinity?salt marsh
What is a threat to coral reefs?oil spills, sewage, pesticides
Why doesn't photosynthesis occur is deep ocean water?there is no sunlight
Plankton forms what part of the food chain?base
What is the least productive marine ecosystem?open ocean
What fresh water and salt water mix in estuaries it forms what?nutrient trap
This lake has a large amount of plant growth due to nutrients.eutrophic lake
Excessive nutrient growth in an aquatic ecosystem can be accelerated by what?runoff
Barnacles are a type of what?benthos
Fish are a type of what?nekton
Mosses use what to anchor themselves?rhizoids
These islands typically run parallel to the shorebarrier islands
This is the amount of dissolved salts in the water.salinity
Many rivers originate from what in the mountains?snow melt
A river changes with what two things?land and climate
Coral polyps secrete skeletons of what?limestone or calcium carbonate
Where do corals live?shallow, warm water
What percent of all coral reefs are threatened by human activity?27%
Photosynthesis is limited to the upper 100 meters of the ocean because water does what?absorbs sunlight
Most ocean pollution can be traced to activities where?on land
What are the three groups of aquatic organisms?plankton, nekton, benthos
What are the two types of plankton?phytoplankton and zooplankton
Marshes are dominated by what types of plants?nonwoody
Swamps are dominated by what types of plants?woody
What is a wetland?area that is periodically underwater
How do you describe eutrophication?increase in the amount on nutrients in an aquatic ecosystem, sometimes caused by upstream runoff. The excess nutrients cause an increase in plant and algaw growth. The number of bacteria in the water also grows, depleting oxygen levels. Fish and other oxygen-dependent organisms may then die.
What are adaptations of birds in a marsh?spear like beaking for stabbing fish and flat beaks that allow them to shift through water to catch fish.
What are three fresh water ecosystems?lake, stream, wetland
what are three marine ecosystems?ocean, marsh, coral reef
What must organisms adapt to in coastal areas and in opean water?In coastal areas, organisms must adapt to changes in water level and salinity. In open oceans, organisms must adapt to changes in temperature and the amount of sunlight and nutrients available
Why are many of the world's largest cities built on estuaries?Estuaries provide protected harbors, access to oceans, and connections to rivers
Do more plants and animals live on rocky or sandy shores? ExplainMore marine organisms live on rocky shores than on sandy shores because rocks provide anchorage for the organisms
What beneficial role do decomposers play in an squatic ecosystem?Decomposers break down dead organisms. This allows the nutrients from dead organisms to reenter the ecosystem for use by other orgnanisms

Southside High School

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