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Genetic Vocabulary Review

geneticsscience of biological inheritance
peathe organism type that Mendel did his research with
homozygoushaving identical alleles for a trait
hemophiliathe bleeders disease; sex-linked trait
heterozygoushaving two different alleles for a trait
alleleone of two or more alternate forms of a gene
muscular dystrophysex-linked conidition; muscles including the heart weaken
genotypedescribes the genes of an organism
phenotypedescribes the appearance of a trait
dominantallele that can cover up a recessive allele
probabilitychance of an event happening
mutationgenetic change in the DNA
genetic disorderharmful mutation produced by a gene or chromosome
sex linked inheritancegenes carried on the sex chromosomes
pedigreerecord that show the inheritance a trait in a family
Punnett squarea way to predict the different type of offspring in a cross
Law of Segregationwhen alleles separate during meiosis
Down's syndrometrisomy 21;caused by nondisjunction
test crossused to determine if an individual is homozygous dominant or heterozygous for a trait
Tt, bb, CCgenotype
Law of Independent Assortmentthe law that states that different traits do not affect the inheritance of other traits
hereditypassing of traits from one generation to the next
monohybrid crosscross between two organisms that involve observing the inheritance of one trait
dihybrid crosscross between two individuals that involve observing the inheritance of two traits
Mendelfather of modern genetics
nondisjunctionwhen two chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis
monosomymissing one chromosome in a pair
trisomyhaving an extra chromosome in a pair (3)
deletion mutationpiece of a chromosome is missing
translocationa piece of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome
cystic fibrosisgenetic disorder that causes mucus buildup in body
sickle cell anemiagene mutation involving hemoglobin in red blood cell
karyotypea photograph of chromosomes used to detect some gentic disorders
incomplete dominancewhen two different alleles together produce an intermediate (blended) phenotype
co-dominanceboth genes in a heterozygote are expressed
polygenic inheritancewhen more than one set of alleles control a trait
pedigreea record of inheritance patterns through several generations

Instructional Technology Facilitator
Surry County Schools

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