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Chapter 30 – Muscular Systems (How Animals Move)--matching

Belmont Hill
Grade 10

AB
Hydrostatic skeletonConsists of fluid held under pressure in a closed body compartment
Axial skeletonConsists of the skull, the vertebral column, and a rib cage – each of which encloses a valuable organ or organs
Appendicular skeletonMade up of bones of the appendages and the bones that anchor the appendages to the axial skeleton
Yellow bone marrowFound within the central cavity of the bone, it is mostly stored fat brought into the bone by the blood
Red bone marrowFound within the central cavity of the bone, it is a specialized tissue that produces our blood cells
Hinge jointPermit movement in a single plane (i.e., elbow or knee)
Pivot jointEnables rotation, as in our wrist rotating relative to the elbow.
TendonsConnect muscle to bone
LigamentsConnect bone to bone
Muscle fiberA single one of these is actually a single long, cylindrical cell that has many nuclei. Many of these make up a “muscle”
MyofibrilDiscrete bundles of proteins that include contractile proteins actin and myosin. Many such bundles (~1000) in a single muscle fiber.
ActinMakes up thin filaments
MyosinMakes up thick filaments
Motor unitA motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it controls
Slow fibersDo not fatigue readily, require aerobic respiration for ATP production, lots of myoglobin, many mitochondria
Fast fibersFatigue rapidly, required anaerobic respiration for ATP production, low myoglobin content, few mitochondria


Lexington, MA

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