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Chapter 6 Chemistry

Chemical Bonds

AB
valence electronselectrons in outer shell of an atom
kernelthe atom nix the valence electrons
When are chemical bonds formed?When atoms transfer or share electrons.
ionic bondingtransfer of electrons between atoms
covalent bondingsharing of electrons between atoms
Ionic bonding involves _______ changes.exothermic
Covalent bonding sometimes involves ________ changes.endothermic
When metals react with nonmetals ______ are formed.bonds
What is the goal of every atom?to have a full outer shell
Metals lose their valence electrons to form ______ ions.positive
Nonmetals gain enough electrons to fill their outer shell to form ______ ions.negative
chemical formuladescribes the comparison of a compound using symbols and subscriptions
empirical formulathe chemical formula reduced to lowest terms
cationpositive ion
antionnegative ion
Are Cations smaller or larger than their atom?smaller
Are antions smaller or larger than their atom?larger
moleculethe smallest particle of a molecular substance
Which type of bonding produces molecules?covalent
2 metals or nonmetals combine to produce molecules?nonmetals
molecular formuladescribes the compostition of a molecule
______ are formed by covalent bonding and are represented by molecular formulas.Molecules
Formula units are formed by ______ bonding and are represented by empirical formulas.ionic
Nonpolar Covalent Bonda bond in which 2 like metallic atoms share a pair of electrons equally
Polar Covalent Bonda bond in which 2 different atoms share electrons unequally
Ionic bonda bond in which electrons are transferred from a metal to a nonmetal
electronegativitya measure of an atoms ability to attract a pair of electrons
electronegativity ____ as it goes across and _____ as it goes downincreases, decreases
______ have high electronegativity and ______ have low.Nonmetals, metals
electronegativity difference = 0, what type of bond?nonpolar covalent
electronegativity difference = .1-1.6, what type of bond?polar covalent
electronegativity difference = >1.7, what type of bondionic bonding
Group 1 metals have a charge of ____.+1
Group 2 metals have a charge of ____.+2
Nonmetals have a charge of _____ if they are last in the formula.-1
Sulfur is ____ if it comes last in the formula.-2
Compounds are ______.neutral
If all bonds are nonpolar than the molecule is ______.nonpolar
If a molecule has one polar covalent bond than the molecule is_____.polar
If a molecule has 2 or more bonds unsymmetrically arranged, the molecule is ____.polar
If a molecule has 2 or more bonds symmetrically arranged, the molecule is ____.nonpolar
resonance2 or more structural formulas can be drawn for the same molecule
oxidation #'stells whether the electrons are transferred or shared


Dawn

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