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Physical Science Chap. 18 Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions

Glencoe Physical Science 2005

AB
strong forceattractive force that acts between protons and neutrons in an atomic nucleus
radioactivityprocess that occurs when a nucleus decays and emits alpha, beta, and gamma radiation
alpha particleparticle consisting of two protons and two neutrons that is emitted from a decaying atomic nucleus
transmutationprocess of changing one element to another through radioactive decay
beta particleelectron that is emitted from a decaying atomic nucleus
gamma rayelectromagnetic wave with no mass and no charge that travels at the speed of light and is usually emitted with alpha or beta particles from a decaying atomic nucleus; has a wavelength less than about ten trillionths
half-lifeamount of time it takes for half the nuclei in a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay
cloud chamberradiation detector that uses water or ethanol vapor to detect the paths of charged particles
bubble chamberradiation detector, consisting of a container of superheated liquid under pressure, that is used to detect the paths of charged particles
Geiger counterradiation detector that produces a click or a flash of light when a charged particle is detected
nuclear fissionprocess of splitting an atomic nucleus into two or more nuclei with smaller masses
chain reactionongoing series of fission reactions
critical massamount of fissionable material required so that each fission reaction produces approximately one more fission reaction
nuclear fusionreaction in which two or more atomic nuclei form a nucleus with a larger mass
tracerradioactive isotope, such as iodine-131, that can be detected by the radiation it emits after it is absorbed by a living organism


Biology
Conroe High School
Conroe, TX

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