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Science Chap 8 & 9

AB
alkyneunsaturated hydrocarbon in which at least one pair of carbon atoms is joined by a triple covalent bond
substituted hydrocarbonhydrocarbon formed when one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon ring or chain are replaced by a different atom or group of atoms
acidcompound with a pH below 7 that tastes sour, turns blue litmus paper red, reacts with metals to produce hydrogen ions;proton donor
Basecompound with pH above 7 that tastes bitter, is slippery to the touch, turns red litmus paper blue, and ionizes in water to produce hydroxide ions; proton acceptor
electrolytesubstance whose water solution conducts an electric durrent
pHmeasure of the hydronium ion concentration of a solution; measured on a scale from 0 to 14
saltcompound formed from the positive ion of a base and the negative ion of an acid
neutralizationreaction in which an acidcombines with a base to form a salt and water
organic compounda carbon containing compound with a few inorganic exceptions such as calcium carbonate carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide
structural formuladescription of a molecule that shows the kind number and arrangement of atoms in a molecule
isomerone of a number of compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures
hydrocarbonorganic compound that contains only hydrogen and carbon
saturated hydrocarbonhydrocarbon in which all the bonds between carbon atoms are single covalent bonds
unsaturated hydrocarbonhydrocarbon in which one or more of the bonds between carbon atoms ar a double covalent or triple covalent bond
alkanestraight chain or branched chain saturated hydrocarbon
alkeneunsaturated hydrocarbon in which at least one pair of carbon atoms is joined by a double covalent bond
chemical reactionprocess in which substances undergo physical and chemical changes that result in the formation of new substances with different properties
reactantsubstance that enters into a chemical reaction
productsubstance produced by a chemical reaction
chemical equationexpression in which symbols formulas and numbers are used to represent a chemical reaction
synthesis ractionchemical reaction in which two or more simple substances combine to form a new more complex substance
decomposition reactionchemical reaction in which a complex substance breaks down into two or more simpler substances
single replacement reactionchemical reaction in which a complex substance breaks down into two or more simpler substances
double replacement actionchemical reaction in which different atoms intwo different compounds replace each other
exothermic reactionchemical reaction inwhich energy is released
endothermic reactionchemical reaction in which energy is absorbed
activation energyenergy required for a chemical reaction to occur
kineticsstudy of the rates of chemical reactions
reaction ratemeasures of how quickly reactants change into products
collision theorytheory that relates collisions among particles to reaction rate; reaction rate depends on such factors as concentration, surface area, temperature and catalysts
catalystsubstance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed by the reaciton

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