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Photosynthesis, Respiration, & Cell Organelles

Vocabulary review for photosynthesis, respiration, and cellular organelle functions.

nucleuscontrol center of the cell that contains its DNA
ribosomesprotein producing organelles
rough endoplasmic reticulumER that contains ribosomes and modifies and transports proteins
smooth endoplasmic reticulumER membranes that produce, modify, and transport lipids for membranes
mitochondriaorganelles in charge of releasing energy from glucose by taking in oxygen
chloroplastsorganelles in charge of making glucose & oxygen from sunlight, water, & CO2
vacuolesmembrane bound sacks used for storing cell water and food
Golgi apparatusrefine, package, and export proteins from the cell
cell membranefound surrounding all cells and controls what enters and leaves the cell
cell walltough outer covering of plant cells that gives them protection and shape
microtubulesthe "bones" of a cell that give them structure
microfilamentsthe "muscles" of a cell that help them move
nucleolusspherical body in the nucleus that makes ribosomes
glycolysisfirst stage of cellular respiration in which glucose splits into 2 pyruvic acids
cellular respirationopposite the process of photosynthesis in which glucose is burned with oxygen to get ATP energy
NAD+coenzyme carrier molecule used in cellular respiration to carry H ions
aerobicmeans with oxygen
anaerobicmeans without oxygen
fermentationanaerobic process that results either in ethyl alcohol or lactic acid
Kreb's cycleaerobic process that strips the hydrogen from citric acid and releases CO2
electron transport chainprocess that slowly combines H with O to form water and releases ATP energy
light reaction1st stage of photosynthesis where chlorophyll captures sun energy
thylakoidschloroplast membranes where chemiosmosis produces ATP from sunlight
granumstacks of thylakoids in chloroplasts
stromathe cytoplasm material surrounding the granum in chloroplasts
chlorophyllthe green pigment in chloroplasts that absorbs light
chemiosmosisprocess in both respiration and photosynthesis that produces ATP from H+ ions
photosystemthylakoid clusters of chlorophyll and other pigments that harvest light energy
Calvin cyclephotosynthesis process that converts CO2 to glucose using ATP
carbon fixationCO2 being brought into living organisms and made into organic compounds
stomatatiny openings on the underside of leaves

Honors Biology & AP Environmental Science Instructor
Santiago High School Science Dept.
Corona, CA

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