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Chapter 15

Advertising Response Functiona phenomenon in which spending for advertising and sales promotion increases sales or market share up to a certain level but then produces diminishing returns
Institutional Advertisinga form of advertising designed to enhance a company's image rather than promote a particular product
Product Advertisinga form of advertising that touts the benefits of a specific good or product
Advocacy AdvertisingA form of advertising in which an organization expresses its views on controversial issues or responds to media attacks
Types of Product AdvertisingPioneering advertising, competitive advertising, comparative advertising
Pioneering Advertisinga form of advertising designed to stimulate primary demand for a new product or product category
Competitive Advertisinga form of advertising designed to influence demand for a specific brand
Comparative Advertisinga form of advertising that compares two or more specifically named or shown competing brands on one ore more specific attributes
Advertising Campaigna series of related advertisements focusing on a common theme, slogan, and set of advertising appeals
Competitive Advertising and the FTCUsed to be outlawed (Unless competitor was veiled and unidentified), but in 1971 the FTC ruled that comparative advertising is okay as long as neither company or product is portrayed inaccurately
What are the steps to create an advertising campaign?1 Develop goals and objectives 2 identify product benefits 3 develop and evaluate advertising appeals 4 execute the message 5 evaluate the campaign
Advertising ObjectiveA specific communication task that a campaign should accomplish for a specified target audience during a specified period
DAGMAR Approach Acronym(Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results)
DAGMAR ApproachAll advertising objectives should precisely define the target audience, the desired percentage change in some specified measure of effectiveness, and the time frame in which that change is to occur
Example of a effective Advertising Objective using the DAGMAR Approach"Educate 15% of 18-30 year old men about the Gillette Fusion razor's benefits within the next 12 months."
Competitive ParityKeep up advertising campaigns with your competitors
% Sales Method3.5% of sales generally go to advertising in most companies. However, sometimes a good year of sales means you don't have to advertise exactly what the method requires
Emotional BondingThe way mastercard has distinguished itself from the competition by invoking emotion from their consumers through their "There are some things money can't buy" advertising campaign
Step 1: Develop Goals and ObjectivesBudget objects, message goals, use either the AIDA or DAGMAR approach
Step 2: Identify Product Benefits"Sell the Sizzle, not the Steak"; Sell a products benefits, not its attributes
Benefit vs. Attributea benefit is what the consumer will achieve by using the product. "What's in it for me?"; Benefits apply to the rational or logical side of consumer versus their emotional side
Step 3: Develop and Evaluate AppealThe emotional reason for a person to buy a product; Often expressed as the product's "theme"
Advertising Appeala reason for a person to buy a product
Unique Selling Propositiona desirable, exclusive, and believable advertising appeal selected as the theme for a campaign. Usually a slogan
Criteria for evaluating an appealDesirability, exclusiveness, and believability
Common Advertising AppealsProfit, Health, Love or Romance, Fear, Admiration, Convenience, Fun & Pleasure, Vanity & Egotism, Environmental Consciousness
Step 4: Execute the MessageThe way an ad portrays its information; Must attract attention and interest, but not distract from the content
Common Executional Styles for AdvertisingSlice-of-life, lifestyle, spokesperson/testimonial, fantasy, humorous, real/animated product symbols, mood or image, demonstration, musical, scientific
MediumThe channel used to convey a message to a target market
Media Planningthe series of decisions advertisers make regarding the selection and use of media, allowing the marketer to optimally and cost-effectively communicate the message to the target
Step 5: Evaluate the CampaignPretests Measures: are consumers likely to respond positively to the ad? Post Test Measures: Do consumers understand the ad? Did the ad meets its objectives/goals?
Media Types Used in Advertisingnewspapers, magazines, radio, television, outdoor media, yellow pages, internet
Advantages of Using NewspapersGeographic selectivity and flexibility; short-term advertiser commitments, news value and immediacy; year-round readership; high individual market coverage; co-op and local tie-in availability
Advantages of Using MagazinesGood reproduction, especially for color; demographic selectivity; regional selectivity; local market selectivity; relatively long advertising life; high pass-along rate
Advantages of Using RadioLow cost; immediacy of message; can be schedule on short notice; relatively no seasonal change in audience; highly portable; short-term advertiser commitments; entertainment carryover
Advantages of Using TelevisionAbility to reach a wide, diverse audience; low cost per thousand; creative opportunities for demonstration; immediacy of messages; entertainment carryover; demographic sensitivity with cable stations
Advantages of Using Outdoor MediaRepetition; moderate cost; flexibility; geographic selectivity
Advantages of Using the InternetFastest-growing medium; ability to reach a narrow target market audience; relatively short lead time required for creating Web-based advertising; moderate cost
Disadvantages of Using NewspapersLittle demographic selectivity; limited color capabilities; low pass-along rate; may be expensive
Disadvantages of Using MagazinesLong-term advertiser commitments; slow audience buildup; limited demonstration capabilities; lack of urgency; long lead time
Disadvantages of Using RadioNo visual treatment; short advertising life of message; high frequency required to generate comprehension and retention; distractions from background sound; commercial clutter
Disadvantages of Using TelevisionShort life of message; some consumer skepticism about claims; high campaign cost; little demographic selectivity with network stations; long-term advertiser commitments; long lead times require for production; commercial clutter
Disadvantages of Using Outdoor MediaShort message; lack of demographic selectivity; high "noise" level distracting audience
Disadvantages of Using the InternetDifficult to measure ad effectiveness and return on investment; ad exposure relies on "click-through" from banner ads; not all consumers have access to the internet
How much is the average time time TV ad?About $300,000
How much is the average Superbowl Ad?About $3 million
Unique AdsCell phone ads more common in Europe & Pizza Hut's attempt to project a pizza onto the moon
Cooperative Advertisingan arrangement in which the manufacturer and the retailer split the costs of advertising and the manufacturer's brand
InfomercialA 30-Minute or longer advertisement that looks more like a TV talk show than a sales pitch
Advergamingplacing advertising messages in web-based or video games to advertise or promote a product, service, organization or issue
advertainmentmini movies that promote a product and are shown via the internet
media mixthe combination of media to be used for a promotional campaign
cost per contactthe cost of reaching one member of the target market
reachthe number of target consumers exposed to a commercial at least once during a specified period, usually four weeks
frequencythe number of times an individual is exposed to a given message during a specific period
audience selectivitythe ability of an advertising medium to reach a precisely defined market
CPMCost per thousand people
Gross Ratings Points (GRP)The higher this is, the more people that are watching a television show
Factors of Media Mix Decisions:cost per contact, reach, frequency, audience selectivity, flexibility, noise level, and life span
"Holding Power"The ability of a television show to keep watchers watching. The less likely you are to change the channel, the more likely you are to remember the commercials
Qualitative Selectivityhow homogenous is your target market? Magazines and cable TV programs have very high audience selectivity
How much does it cost to air an ad during a season finale?About $500,000+
Media Scheduledesignation of the media, the specific publications or programs, and the insertion dates of advertising
Continuous Media SchedulingA media scheduling strategy in which advertising is run steadily throughout the advertising period; used for products in the latter stages of the product life cycle
Flighted Media ScheduleA media scheduling strategy in which ads are run heavily every other month or every two weeks, to achieve a greater impact with an increased frequency and reach at those times
Pulsing Media Schedulea media scheduling strategy that uses continuous scheduling throughout the year coupled with a flighted schedule during the best sales periods
Seasonal Media Schedulea media scheduling strategy that runs advertising only during times of the year when the product is most likely to be used (School Supplies)
Recency PlanningContinuous scheduling is more effective than flighted scheduling because people are most influenced right before they make a purchase
Publicitythe effort to capture media attention for your firm using various publication methods
What are the major public relations tools?New-Product publicity, product placement, consumer education, sponsorship, internet websites
Product Placementa public relations strategy that involves getting a product, service, or company name to appear in a source of media not directly seen as an advertisement
SponsorshipA public relations strategy in which a company spends money to support an issue that is consistent with corporate objectives, such as improving brand awareness or enhancing corporate image
cause-related marketinga type of sponsorship involving the association of a for-profit organization and a nonprofit organization; through the sponsorship, the company's product or service is promoted, and money is raised for the nonprofit
Crisis managementa coordinated effort to handle all the effect of unfavorable publicity or of another unexpected unfavorable event

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