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Cells, Tissues, and Organs/ Word Definitions / Chapter 4

Define basic terms pertaining to the structure and function of body tissues

Cell membraneOuter layer of the cell; composed mainly of lipids and proteins / Function: limits the cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
CytoplasmColoidal suspension that fills cell / Function: Holds cell contents
NucleusLarge, dark-staining body near the center of the cell; composed of DNA and proteins / Function: Contains the chromosomes with the genes(the hereditary material that directs all cell activities
NucleolusSmall body in the nucleus; composed of RNA, DNA, and protein / Function: Needed for protein manufacture
Endoplasmic reticulumNetwork of membranes in the cytoplasm / Function: Used for storage and transport; holds ribosomes
RibosomesSmall bodies attached to the endoplasmic reticulum; composed of RNA and protein / Function: Manufacture proteins
MitochondriaLarge organelles with folded membranes inside / Function: Convert energy from nutrients into ATP
Golgi apparatusLayers of membranes / Function: Put together special subsances such as mucus
LyosomesSmall sacs of digestive enzymes / Function: Digest substances within the cell
CentriolesRod-shaped bodies (usually 2) near the nucleus / Function: Help separate the chromosomes in cell division
CiliaShort, hairlike projections from t he cell / Function: Create movement around the cell
FlagellumLong, whiplike extension from the cell / Function: Moves the cell
ATPThe energy compound of the cell; stores energy needed for cell activities. ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate
cellThe basic structural and functional unit of the living organism; a microscopic unit that combines with other cells to form tissues
chromosomeA threadlike body in the nucleus of a cell that contains genetic information
DNAThe genetic compound of the cell; makes up the genes. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid
enzymeAn organic substance that speeds the rate of metabolic reactions
geneA hereditary unit composed of DNA and combined with other genes to form the chromosomes
glucoseA simple sugar that circulates in the blood; the main energy source for metabolism
homeostasisA steady state; a condition of internal stability and constancy
lipidA category of organic compounds which includes fats
metabolismThe sum of all the physical and chemical changes that occur within an organism
mitosiscell division ; the chromosomes are doubled and then equally distributed to the two daughter cells
mucusA thick fluid secreted by cells in membranes and glands that lubricates and protects tissues
RNAAn organic compound involved in the manufacture of proteins within cells. RNA stands for ribonucleic acid
tissueA group of cells that acts together for a specific purpose
amino acidsThe nitrogen-containing compounds that make up proteins
anabolismThe type of metabolism in which body substances are made; the building phase of metabolism
catabolismThe type of metabolism in which substances are broken down for energy and simple compounds
collagenA fibrous protein found in connective tissue
cortexThe outer region of an organ
glycogenA complex sugar compound stored in liver and muscles; broken down into glucose when needed for energy
interstitialBetween parts, such as the spaces between cells in a tissue
medullaThe inner region of an organ; marrow
parenchymaThe functional tissue of an organ
parietalPertaining to a wall; describes a membrane that lines a body cavity
somaThe body
visceralPertaining to the internal organs; describes a membrane on the surgace of an organ

Jeani Keogh

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