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Apologia Biology - Module 11: The Invertebrates of Kingdom Animalia (2nd edition)

Vocabulary from Module 11, from Apologia Educational Ministries' High School Biology Course Exploring Creation With Biology, by Dr. Jay Wile and Marilyn F. Durnell (2nd edition).


There is also a crossword puzzle for this module at:

InvertebratesAnimals that lack a backbone
VertebratesAnimals that possess a backbone
Spherical symmetryAn organism possesses spherical symmetry if it can be cut into two identical halves by any cut that runs through the organism's center.
Radial symmetryAn organism possesses radial symmetry if it can be cut into two identical halves by any longitudinal cut through its center.
Bilateral symmetryAn organism possesses bilateral symmetry if it can only be cut into two identical halves by a single longitudinal cut along its center which divides it into right and left halves.
EpidermisAn outer layer of cells designed to provide protection
MesenchymeThe jellylike substance that separates the epidermis from the inner cells in a sponge
Collar cellsFlagellated cells that push water through a sponge
AmoebocytesCells that move using pseudopods and perform a variety of functions in animals
GemmuleA cluster of cells encased in a hard, spicule-reinforced shell
PolypThe sessile, tubular form of a cnidarian with a mouth and tentacles at one end and a basal disk at the other
MedusaA free-swimming cnidarian with a bell-shaped body and tentacles
EpitheliumAnimal tissue consisting of one or more layers of cells that have only one free surface, because the other surface adheres to a membrane or other substance
MesogleaThe jelly-like substance that separates the epithelial cells in a cnidarian
NematocystsSmall capsules that contain a toxin which is injected into prey or predators
TestesOrgans that produce sperm
OvariesOrgans that produce eggs
Anterior endThe end of an animal that contains its head
Posterior endThe end of an animal that contains its tail
Circulatory systemA system designed to transport food and other necessary substances throughout a creature's body
Nervous systemA system of sensitive cells that respond to stimuli such as sound, touch, and taste
GangliaMasses of nerve cell bodies
HermaphroditicPossessing both the male and the female reproductive organs
RegenerationThe ability to regrow a missing part of the body
MantleA sheath of tissue that encloses the vital organs of a mollusk, secretes its shell, and performs respiration
ShellA tough, multilayered structure secreted by the mantle, generally used for protection, but sometimes for body support
Visceral humpA hump that contains a mollusk's heart, digestive, and excretory organs
FootA muscular organ that is used for locomotion and takes a variety of forms depending on the animal
RadulaAn organ covered with teeth that mollusks use to scrape food into their mouths
UnivalveAn organism with a single shell
BivalveAn organism with two shells

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