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Apologia Biology - Module 13: Phylum Chordata (2nd edition)

Vocabulary from Module 13, from Apologia Educational Ministries' High School Biology Course Exploring Creation With Biology, by Dr. Jay Wile and Marilyn F. Durnell (2nd edition).


There is also a crossword puzzle for this module at:

VertebraeSegments of bone or some other hard substance that are arranged into a backbone
NotochordA rod of tough, flexible material that runs the length of a creature's body, providing the majority of its support
EndoskeletonA skeleton on the inside of a creature's body, typically composed of bone or cartilage
Bone marrowA soft tissue inside the bone that produces blood cells
Axial skeletonThe portion of the skeleton that supports and protects the head, neck, and trunk
Appendicular skeletonThe portion of the skeleton that attaches to the axial skeleton and has the limbs attached to it
Closed circulatory systemA circulatory system in which the oxygen-carrying blood cells never leave the blood vessels
ArteriesBlood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
CapillariesTiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells of the body
VeinsBlood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
Olfactory lobesThe lobes of the brain that receive signals from the receptors in the nose
CerebrumThe lobes of the brain that integrate sensory information and coordinate the creature's response to that information
Optic lobesThe lobes of the brain that receive signals from the receptors in the eyes
CerebellumThe lobe that controls involuntary actions and refines muscle movement
Medulla oblongataThe lobes that coordinate vital functions, such as those of the circulatory and respiratory systems, and transport signals from the brain to the spinal chord
Internal fertilizationThe process by which the male places sperm inside the female's body, where the eggs are fertilized
External fertilizationThe process by which the female lays eggs and the male fertilizes them once they are outside of the female
Oviparous developmentDevelopment that occurs in an egg that is hatched outside the female's body
Ovoviviparous developmentDevelopment that occurs in an egg that is hatched inside the female's body
Viviparous developmentDevelopment that occurs inside the female, allowing the offspring to gain nutrients and vital substances from the mother through a placenta
AnadromousA life cycle in which creatures are hatched in fresh water, migrate to salt water as adults, and then go back to fresh water in order to reproduce
BileA mixture of salts and phospholipids that aids in the breakdown of fat
AtriumA heart chamber that receives blood
VentricleA heart chamber from which blood in pumped out
EctothermicLacking an internal mechanism for regulating body heat
HibernationA state of extremely low metabolism and respiration, accompanied by lower-than-normal body temperatures

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