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The Rise of the Axis

This activity focusses on the rise of the dictators, collapse of collective security and the policy of appeasement.

abdicationact of giving up the throne
annexationtaking territory from another country
anschlussjoining of Germany and Austria
anti-Semitismhatred of Jewish people
appeasementpolicy of giving in to the demands of strong countries to avoid war
Aryannorthern European racial type
axisalliance between Germany, Italy and Japan
blitzkrieglightening war
Blitzbombing of Britain
collective securitynations working together to protect a country against an agressor
conscriptionforced enlistment into the armed forces
enlistmentvoluntary joining the armed forces
einsatzgruppenSS murder squads
euthenasiaNazi method of eliminating mentally ill and handicapped people
fascismextreme right wing politics
ghettoenclosed area in Warsaw where Jews were forced into
holocaustsystematic murder of Jews by the Nazis
internationalismplacing the good of the whole over nationalistic interest
lebensraumGerman idea of having living space in eastern Europe
Maginot LineFrench defensive line along the Franco-German border
plebicitenational vote on an issue
pogromstate-organised violence against the Jews
propagandaone-sided view of an issue
purgesremoving opposition by force
revisionismpolicy advocating the end of the Treaty of Versailles
sanctionseconomic punishment against an aggressor
Vichy RegimeNazi supported French government of occupied France
volksgemeinschaftpeople's community
volkssturmGerman home defence organisation
attritionattempt to exhaust the other side
WehrmachtGerman army
autarkyeconomic self-sufficiency
GrossdeutschlandGreater Germany: bringing into the Reich all Germans from pre 1919, including Austria
Non-Agression Pactagreement between Germany and Poland that lulled Poles into a false sense of security
DolfussAustrian Chancellor assassinated in July 1934
MussoliniLeader of Italy in WWII
Covenantrules of the League of Nations
Saarregion on the Franco-German border returned to Germany in 1935
Rhinelandarea on the Franco-German border, remilitarised in March 1936
Francofascist leader supported by Germany in the Spanish Civil War
Anti-Comintern Pactsigned by Germany and Italy against the Soviet Union
GuernicaSpanish town obliterated by German bombing in April 1937
ChamberlainBritish Prime Minister who brokered an agreement with Hitler in Munich
SchnuschniggAustrian Chancellor who called a plebicite on independence
Munich Agreementagreement that gave Germany the Sudentenland
Memelarea of Lithuania annexed by Germany in March 1939
Pact of Steel10 year alliance signed by Germany and Italy in May 1939
Czechoslovakiainvaded by Germany in March 1939
Lateran Accordagreement between the Vatican and Italy
AlbaniaMussolini supported King Zog and dominated politics in this country
AbyssiniaMussolini signed a Friendship Treaty with this country in 1928 but invaded it in October 1935
Stresa FrontBritain, France, Italy formed this in April 1935 to combat possible German agression
Hoare-Laval Pactplan that Britain and France would use to carve up Abyssinia
Medlicotthistorian who argued Hitler was an opportunist, but he was consistent in his long term aims
Kershawhistorian who argued Hitler maintained his plans for expansion and this could only be achieved with force
Taylorhistorian who argued that lebensraum offered space but only as a result of war
Mack Smithhistorian who comments that Mussolini was proud of the terrorist methods of warfare used by the fascists
Thomsonhistorian who comments on the German-Italian relationship and that Hitler benefited more from the Spanish Civil War
Manchuriainvaded by Japan in 1931 which was condemned by the League of Nations resulting in Japan leaving the League
Lytton Commissionsent by the League of Nations to report on the Japanese invasion of Manchuria

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