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Test 3 (chapters 1-5)

Weather Unit vocabulary and concepts

weatherthe condition of the Earth's atmosphere at a given time in a given place
meteorologythe scientific study of the Earth's weather
meteorologista person who studies the Earth's weather
weather instrumentsused to measure weather conditions
convectioncirculation in a fluid that results from energy transfer; during this process, warm masses of air rise and cool masses of air sink
water vaporwater that is always in the air
cloudsform when air cool and water vapor condenses on dust or other nuclei
thermometerweather instument that measures temperature in degrees C or F
barometerweather instument that measures air pressure in millibars
hygrometerweather instument that measures humidity in pecentage
wind vaneweather instument that measures wind direction measured in compass points
anemometerweather instument that measures wind speed in k/hr
forecasta prediction about what kind of weather to expect
severe weatherweather that is dangerous or causes damage
atmospherethe gases around the Earth
weather factorsproperties of air that affect weather
compressedforced into a smaller space
pressurethe force of the air pushing in all directions
massamount of matter in an object
weightis the force an object exerts because of gravity
Tropospherethe part of Earth's atmoshpere where weather takes place
different kinds of weatherassociated with different seasons
observing, hypothesizing, experimentingThe three steps to the scientific method
nitrogenmost abundant gas in the atmosphere
Coriolis effectthe way in which the earth's rotation causes a change in the course of the winds
frontboundary between two air masses
cumulonimbusan example is a thundercloud
critical massthe amount of fissionable material that must be present in order for a nuclear chain reaction to take place
nuclear fissionthe splitting of atomic numbers
nuclear fusionthe process of joining two small atomic muclei together to form a larger nucleus
elementssubstances composed of only one type of atom
litermetric unti of capacity and liquid measure
grammetric unit mass
metermetric unit of length
Kelvin scalescale of absolute tmperatures
centi-prefix meaning 1/100th of a specific unit
milli-prefix meaning 1/1000th of a specific unit
kilo-prefix meaning 1000 of a specific unit
precisionthe repeatability or consistency of a series of measurments
Gulf Streama well-known ocean current that flows up the coast of North America and then sweeps across the Atlantic to Europe
Challenger Deepteh deepest known point in the sea, located in the Marianas Trench near Guam
tsunamisgigantic sea waves formed by earthquakes, volcanic explosions, or undersea landslides
troposherethe lowest layer of the atomosphere
ionosphereportion of the mesosphere and thermosphere known for its ability to "bounce" radio signals
exospherethe outermost layer of the atmosphere
trade windswinds that blow from the horse latitudes toward the equator
ITCZa belt of warm rising air that straddles the equator, where winds from the tropics converge
monsoonswinds that change direction from season to season
greenhouse effecttrapping of heat in the earth's atmosphere
oceanographystudy of the earth's oceans, seas, and their basisn
themoclineborder of warm surface water meets the deep ocean water
hurricanestorm that have sustained wind speeds of 74 + miles per hour
Nucleuscentral core of an atom
weightpull of gravity upon an object
8 electronsatoms seek to have in outer shell

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