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Biology Exam

What is Biology?study of life
What does it mean to be a Biologist?to learn about the different types of living things around us
What are the steps of the Scientific MethodHypothesis (inductive & deductive reasoning), experiment (independent & dependent varibles), gather data, record results, verify results, conclusion (theory, law)
What are the building blocks of proteins?amino acids
What is an ion?an atom that gains or loses electrons and has an electrical charge
What is the pH of acids and bases?acids-6 and below bases-8 and above neutral-7
What is the structure of a saturated/unsaturated fatty acid?saturated- single carbon bond unsaturated- double carbon bond
what is the structure of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins?carbohydrate- 2H 1O 1C lipid- organic compound that has a large proporiton of C-H bonds proteins-amino acids
Where is the cell wall found?in plant cells
What is the level of organizaton?cell- nucleus- chromosones- chromatian- DNA
What is contained in the nucleus?cell's DNA & manages the cell's functions
What is a lysosome?organelles that contain digestive enzymes, digest excess or worn out cell parts, food particles, & invading virues or bacteria
What is a ribosome?sites where the cell assembles enzymes & other protein according to the directions of the DNA
What is the plasma membrane?serves as a boundary between cell & environment, controls movement into & out of the cell
What is a mitochondria?"mighty mitochondria", transform energ for the cell ATP
What is cytoskeleton?, thin fibrous elements
What are the levels of complexity?cell- tissue- organ- system- human
What is hypotonic?when the constration inside the cell is less than outside & explodes
What is hypertonic?constration inside the cell is higher than outside & shrinks
What is istonic?outside of the cell equal to the inside
What is a phospolipid bilayer?membrane lipid having an organic section attached to phosphate group
What is diffusion?movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
What is osmosis?the diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
What is passive transport?movement of particles across membranes by diffusion (no energy)
What is active transport?transport of materials agains a concentration gradient (requires energy)
What is celluar respiration?process in which cells break down molecules of food to release energy
What is the equation for photosynthesis?6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy-- C6H12O6 + 6O2
What is the function of chloroplasts?site where light energy is converted into chemical energy
What is the function of chlorophyll?green pigment traps light energy from the sun, gives plants their green color
ADP + Pi ---ATP
What is the calvin cycle final product?6 carbon sugar (starch)
What is contact inhibiton?type of cell to cell communcation
What is a gene?segment of DNA located on the chromosome
Why is a cell's size limited?3 reasons
What is homozygous?two identical alleles for a trait
What is heterozygous?two different alleles for a trait
What is the law of independant assortment?Mendelina principle explaning that different traits are inherited independently if on different chromosomes
What is heredity?passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring
What is genotype?an organism's gene combination
What is phenotype?outward apperance of an organism regardless of its genes
What are PCR techniques?polymearase chain reaction p. 387
What is gene therapy?the insertion of normal genes into human cells to correct genetic disorders
What is the Human Genome Project?international effort to completely map sequence the human genome

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