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American Government Final Exam Review

Chief of StateSymbol head of government
Chief ExecutiveRuns the federal government
Chief AdministratorAppoints people to help him
Chief DiplomatRuns foreign policy, makes treaties
Commander-in-ChiefIn charge of military
Chief LegislatorSigns or vetoes bills
Chief of PartyHead of political party
Electoral CollegeSystem in which the United States elects a president
EconomicsThe study of how society uses its scarce resources
Opportunity CostThe cost of an alternative that must be forgone in order to pursue a certain action. Put another way, the benefits you could have received by taking an alternative action
Production Possiblity FrontierA curve depicting all maximum output possibilities of two or more goods given a set of inputs (resources, labor, etc.).
Command EconomyWhen a government controls all aspects of economic activity
Market EconomyWhen people make decisions on all aspects of the communitu
Traditional EconomyWhen people produce enough to survive
Scarcityneeds and wants exceed the resources available to meet them
ShortageTemporary loss of a want
Absolute AdvantageGeneral ability to produce more goods using fewer resources
Comparative AdvantageThe ability to produce one good at a relatively lower opportunity cost then other goods
Davide RicardoDeveloped the Theory of Comparative Advantage
Theory of Comparative AdvantageDiscusses the benefits of specialization and free trade
Natural ResourcesEx. Land
Human ResourcesEx. Labor
Capital ResourcesEquipment used to make other things
ProductionProcess by which resources are transformed into useful forms
ConfederationPower to the states, central government very weak
Unitary GovernmentCentral government has the power
Federal GovernmentCentral government and states share power
DemocracyType of decion making where government controlled by the people
DictatorshipAny person, party, or class that holds all the power
MonarchyOne person has power, like a king
TotalitarianType of decision making, where single person or group that has all the power
Direct DemocracyAll citizens participate in the decision-making process
Republic/ Indirect DemocracyPeople elect representatives to make decisions for them
CapitalismEconomic system where individuals control economic decisions, with little or no government interference
SocialismGovernment owns businesses
FederalistSupported the Constitution- James Madison, Alexander Hamilton
Anti-FederalistDid not support the Constitution because there was no mention of God, states could not print their own $, and it lacked a Bill of Rights- John Hancock, Patrick Henry
Veto"I forbid" in Latin, the President rejects a law
Override a veto2/3 of Congress vote to override a presidential veto
New Jersey Plan"Small state plan"- wanted unilateral govt, with equal representation
Virginia Plan"Large state plan"- wanted representation to be based on population
3/5 CompromiseBlacks counted as three-fifths of person
Connecticut CompromiseBilateral Congress- One based on equal representation, one based on population
PreambleBeginning section of the Constitution ("We the people, in order to form a more perfect union...")
Magna Carta1st document that limited the kings power
Declaration of IndependenceWritten by Thomas Jefferson, officially separated the United States from England
Articles of ConfederationFailed document that made a weak central government and a strong state governments- "firm league of friendship"
Interstate CommerceBusiness between states
Legislative BranchMakes laws (Congress- House of Representatives and Senate)
Judicial BranchInterprets laws (Supreme Court- Judges)
Executive BranchEnforces laws (President)
Judicial ReviewPower of the judicial branch to declare an act of the president or a law unconstitutional
Delegated PowersPowers given to the national government according to the Constitution
Reserved powersPowers held by the states
Concurrent powersPowers held byt the national and state governments
ImpeachCharge against a public official
PardonForgive criminals
JurisdictionWho has the power to try the case, a court is limited in the type of case they can try
PlantiffOne who initiates the suit
Defendantthe party who must defend against the complaint
AppealWhen a higher court hears your case after a lower case had already ruled
Judicial ReviewPower of the courts to declare acts of legislative and executive branch unconstitutional
PrecedentsDecisions reaced in earlier court cases that can be applied to a case presently being tried
PerjuryLie under oath
JusticesJudges in Supreme courts
Brown v. Board of EducationDesegregated schools, said "separate but equal" does not work
Engle v. VitaleAbolished prayer in school
Tinker v. Des MoinesStudents were allowed to express themselves by wearing peace symbol armbands to school
Bakke v. University of CaliforniaRace could only be used as part of the admission process, not the only reason
Roe v. WadeStates can't make laws making abortions illegal
TLO v. New JerseySchools are allowed to search students' personal property for evidence if there is suspicion of a crime
RiderAn addition to a bill
PigeonholeTo kill a bill
FilibusterA strategy the Senate can use to talk for a really long time to prevent a vote on a bill
VetoWhen the President kills a bill
Pocket VetoIf the president does not sign a bill for 10 ten days, and the bill dies
PageYouth, a helper to a congressmen
Majority LeaderLeader of the political party in charge
Minority LeaderLeader of the political party not in charge
President Pro TemporeFills in as president of the senate when he is absent
Vice PresidentPresident of the Senate
CommitteePlace a bill goes after it is introduced in either the House or the Senate. It also deals with specific issues
GerrymanderTo make district lines to the advantage of the political party in charge
ConstituentsPeople one represents
IdeologyViews and beliefs by an individual or group
Public OpinionAttitudes expressed by citizens about the country and government
ModerateBelieve in the government should stay out of peoples lives, but believes that government should help those who can't help themselves.
ConservativeBelieve in limited government, and allowing people to make their own decisions with their money
LiberalBelieve the governments role is to help those who can't help themselves, even if that means raising taxes to help them
Mass MediaSources of information that reach a large number of the public (TV, Radio, News)
Interest GroupGroup that seeks to influence the government by supporting a candidate who believes in the single issue that they believe
CaucusMeeting of party leaders to determine their candidate
General ElectionRegularly scheduled election which determines who will take the office
Coattail EffectCandidate who links with a popular elected official
Soft MoneyMoney not regulated by federal law, can be given to the party and not the candidate
ElectoratePeople who can vote in an election
SufferageRight to vote
CongressHouse of Representative and the Senate
article Ilegislative branch
makes the lawsWhat does the legislative branch do?
25Age requirement for the House if Representatives
30age requirement for the Senate (US)
7 yearsresidency requirement for the House of Representatives
9 yearsresidency requirement for the US Senate
2 yearsterm of office of the House of Representatives
legislative branchCongress
6 yearsterm of office for the US Senate
435number of members in the house of Representatives
100number of members in the US Senate
Speaker of the Housethe main officer of the House of Represenatives and House of Delegates
equal representationdetermines the number of members in the US Senate
populationthe state's ___ determines the number of members in the House of Representatives
Great Compromisesettled the dispute over creating a bicameral legislature
Virginia Plan & New Jersey Planmade up the Great Compromise
impeachmenta process of removing those people in office that abuse their power
accuses and impeachesthe Houses role in impeachment
Convicts and removesthe senates role in impeachment
Johnson & Clinton2 US Presidents that have been impeached
Zeronumber of US Presidents that have been removed from office

Social Studies Teacher
Lampeter-Strasburg High School, Social Studies Department

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