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World History II Midterm Review: Terms

VoltaireFrench philosophe who wrote "Candide" and focused on religious tolerance
Nicolaus CopernicusPolish astronomer who first developed the Heliocentric theory
Johannes Keplerscientist who developed 3 laws on planetary motion supporting the heliocentric theory
Galileodeveloped a telescope that could support the heliocentric theory. He tested many of Aristotle's ideas proving them false
Isaac NewtonEnglish scientist, he discovered laws of Gravity
William HarveyDiscovered circulation of the Blood
Thomas HobbesWrote the "Leviathan," he believed that a state must have a central authority to maintain order
John Lockewrote the "Two treatise of Government" he believed in natural rights of men (life, liberty, property)
Baron de Montesquieuwrote "On the Spirit of Laws" he believed that in a separation of powers in government
Jean-Jacques Rousseauwrote "The Social Contract" and believed people should reject unjust governments
Thomas JeffersonAmerican author of Declaration of Independence, he was heavily influenced by John Locke
Johan Sebastian Bachfamous German Baroque composer
Amadeus MozartFamous Austrian Classical composer
Eugene Delacroixfamous painter from the Enlightenment, painted "Liberty leading the People"
Miguel Cervanteswrote "Don Quixote," which is considered to be the first modern european Novel
Louis XVIFrench King during the French Revolution, he was removed from power and eventually executed
the Jacobinsa radical group in France during the French Revolution, they wanted to eliminate all of France's ties to the nobility of the past
Robespierreas part of the Committee of Pubic Safety he began the "reign of terror" in France
Napoleon Bonapartemilitary genius who was given control of the French army by the Directory. He would later take power in France
Scientific Revolutiontime period where science changed by relying on reason and systematic measurement to understand the natural world
Scientific Methodprocess developed during the scientific revolution that focused on creating and testing a hypothesis
Heliocentric theoryaccurate belief that the sun is the center of the solar system
Geocentric Theoryflawed belief that the earth was the center of the solar system
Age of Enlightenmenttime period where reason and logic were applied to all aspects of life including government, politics, art and technology
French Revolutiontime period in France where the French people overthrew their absolute monarchy and started to implement democratic ideals
Bastille Prisonbuilding that was stormed by the French people in order to defend the revolution. It was the most symbolic act of the revolution.
Reign of Terrorradical rule by the Jacobins that resulted in the deaths of 40,000 "traitors" during the French revolution
Estates GeneralFrench legisdlative body under the king that was divided into 3 separate estates
Rights of Manwritten in 1789 it gave basic liberties to the French People
National Assemblynew legislative body formed by 3rd estate during the French revolution
Agricultural revolutionimprovements in farming that resulted in increased productivity and decreased the need for farm labor
Absolutismgovernment where power is held by one person or a small group
divine rightbelief that a king's authority comes from god
czartitle taken by russian leaders, starting with Ivan III
St. PetersburgRussian city fouunded by Peter the Great as a "window to the west"
Versaillespalace built by Louis XIV as a symbol of imperial power
Parliamenta legislative group. In England it represented the people's voice in government
Magna Cartasigned in 1215, it was the 1st limit on a king's power in England. It later led to more rights for Englishmen
Jury System12 jurors decide the facts of a case
The Restorationtime period where Charles II was given the throne in England following the harsh rule of Oliver Cromwell
The Glorious Revolutionterm used to refer to William and Mary's ascension to the English throne
English Bill of Rights1689 parliamntary law that placed more limits on the power of the English monarch
Louis XIVFrench absolute monarch who built versailles and expanded France's manufacturing and colonial possessions
Peter I (the great)Russian czar who weesternized Russia and built St. Petersburg
Charles IEnglish king who led the cavaliers during the English civil war
Oliver Cromwellled the roundheads in the English civil war, later ruled as a military dictator
Charles IIreturned from exile to Rule England after the death of Cromwell, restoring England's monarchy
William and MaryEnglish King and Queen who overthrew James II in the name of Protestantism, during the glorious revolution.
English Civil Warwar fought between the supporters of Parliament (Cromwell) and the supporters of the king (Charles I)
Mughal empirecentered in India it was descended from the Mongols
Ottoman Empireempire centered in Asia Minor and united by Islamic faith
Shogunmilitary leader in Japan who held all real political power
Japan's emperorpowerless leader in Japan who was worshipped by the people
Taj Mahalgreatest example of Mughal architecture
Foreign Enclavesareas in China that foreign trade was restricted to.
Toriespolitical party that supported the King
Whigspolitical party that supported Parliament
Elizabeth ITudor Monarch that balanced religious conflict while strengthening the power of the country.
Islammajor religion for both the Ottoman and Mughal Empires
AstrolabeNavigation device originally developed by the Greeks and later perfected by Muslims, it told measured degrees away from the equator
Caravela sturdier ship used for navigation
Cartographersomeone who makes maps
circumnavigateto sail around the Earth
Prince Henry the NavigatorPortuguese noble who established a school for navigation
Vasco de GamaPortuguese explorer who reached Spice Islands by a sea route
Ferdinand MagellanSailing for Spain, he was the first to circumnavigate the globe
Hernando CortesSpanish conquistador who conquered the Aztecs
Christopher Columbussailed for Spain and is credited with the European discovery of the New World
Conquistadorterm give to the Spanish conquerers of the Americas
Amerigo Vespuccifirst European explorer to realize that the "new world" was in fact separate from Asia
Jacques CartierFrench explorer who discovered the St. Lawrence River
Francisco PizarroConquistador who conquered the Inca in Peru
Privateera legal pirate who would steal the cargo of spanish ships
Middle Passagethe long difficult journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas
Francis DrakeEnglish explorer who circumnavigated the globe
Columbian exchangeexchange of products and technologies from one hemisphere to another that resulted from the discovery of the new world
Triangular trade routethree step trade route between Europe, W. Africa, and the Americas
Colonyoverseas land established to help its parent/mother country
Mestizosomeone of a mixture of Native and European blood
smallpoxdeadly disease that devastated the native population in the Americas
MullattoA person of mixed African and European descent in the latin American Caste System
Latin American Caste Systemrigid social structure in Latin America that ranked people based on their racial background
Old World Agricultural productsSugar Cane, Coffee, Tea
New Word Agricultural ProductsPotato, Tomato, Tobacco, Maize
Joint Stock CompaniesBusinesses created by people who bought shares or stock in exchange for a % of the profit. These companies helped Europe start colonies.
Dutch East India CompanyJoint Stock Company from Holland that controlled parts of Indonesia and the Spice Trade
British East India CompanyBritish Joint Stock Company that gained control over India
Virginia Company of LondonBritish Joint Stock Company that established Jamestown, the 1st permanent settlement in N. America
spicesmajor trade item sought by Europeans that helped spur exploration
inflationmajor economic problem that resulted from Spain's importation of precious metals
racecharateristic that slavery became based around as a result of the triangular trade route
Christianitymajor religion that contributed to the age of exploration by seeking more followers
Africadestination for the first leg of the triangular trade route where manufactured goods were traded for slaves
Europestarting point and final destination for triangular trade route where raw materials were sold for profit.
Americasdestination for the first leg of the triangular trade route where slaves were traded for agricultural products
Italycountry thta intially held a monopoly on the spice trade earning them great proftis
indigenousterm that means "native" and referred to the people and empires of the Americas
Constantinoplecity that was conquered by muslism and closed to christian traders causing Europeans to search for a different way to reach Asia
Plantationlarge scale farms that hurt both the local economy and the environment
Father Miguel Hidalgoleader oif Mexicna independence movement
Toussaint L'Ouvertureleader of Haiti's independence movement
Jose San Martinled southern part of South America to its independence
Simon Bolivarled the northern areas of South America to its independence
Latin Americaareas south of the US that speak a language derived from LAtin (ex. Spanish, French, Portuguese)
Viceroycolnial officials or governors placed in charge of colonies. They served as "vice"-kings
Conquistadorsspanish soldiers that conquered native empires
Creolesterm for those of European heritage that were born in Latin America
Peninsularesthose who were borin in Europe but lived in Latin America
Mestizosterm for thos of mixed European and Native descent
Catholic Churchmajor religion in Latin America
James MonroeUS president that issued Monroe Doctrine in 1823
Monroe Doctrinestated the LAtin America had right to its independence and Europe should not attempt to recolonize Latin America
Haiticolony that earned its independence from France
HavanaMajor colonial outpost in Cuba
Mexico Citymajor colonial outpost in Mexico
LimaMajor colonial outpost in Peru
Sao Paulomajor colonial outpost in Brazil
Mexico Map
Brazil Map
Argentina Map
Peru Map
Haiti Map
Cuba Map
Napoleon BonaparteFrench general who became emperor of France and tried to conquer all of Europe
Continental SystemNapoleon's plan to blockade England's Trade
Peninsula Warsguerrilla wars fought between France and Spain over France's attempt to rule spain
Russian InvasionNapoleon's disastrous military campaign that resulted in his defeat and intitial exile
Napoleonic CodeNapoleon's law code and lasting contribution to European Politics
Waterloosite of Napoleon's final defeat
Congress of Viennameeting held by Europe's leaders after the defeat of Napoleon to try to restore Europe's borders to they way they were before.
Prince MetternichAustrian diplomat who dominated the Congress of Vienna and developed the Balace of Power doctrine
Balance of Powerpolicy favored at the Congress of Vienna, based around having empires of similar power in order to preserve peace
1848 revolutionsrevolutions across Europe fueled by nationalism that failed to produce any actual democratic reforms
Conservatismpolitical ideology based around relying on past traditions, favored by nobility
Liberalismpolitical philosophy based around giving commoners more political rights and supporting democracy. Favored by middle class merchants
Radicalismexreme political philosophy based around expanding democracy and redistributing wealth. Favored by the peasants and poorer classes
Nationa group of people unitied by common characteristic (language, religion, etc)
Nation-StateA country that contains mainly people from the same nation
Nationalismpride in one's people or land, to the extent where you feel it is superior to others
Camillo Cavourunited Northern Italy
Giusseppe Garibaldiunited Southern Italy with his red shirt army
Papal Statesportion of Italy controlled by the pope. This was the last group to join Italian unification.
Vatican CityPortion of Rome still controlled by Catholic Church today
Otto von BismarckPrussian foreign minister who led Germany's unification movement
Realpolitikphilosophy based around doing whatever it takes to make your country more powerful, without regard to morals
Franco-Prussian WarWar that completed German unification by bringing in S. German states in a conflict against France
German confederationloose combination of 39 German kingdoms, that was dominated by Austria and Prussia
Britaincountry who avoided revolution by granting more democratic reforms to its people
95 ThesesMartin Luther's published criticism of the Catholic Church
Protestantthe term given to the group of Christians who protested and broke away from the Catholic Church
Usurymaking of loans with interest, it was forbidden by the Catholic Church
Indulgencessold by the church as penance for sins, people thought they could buy their way into heaven
Johan TetzelCatholic priest in Germany notorious for selling indulgences
Martin LutherGerman reformer, who broke with the Catholic Church beginning the reformation
Excommunicateto be expelled from the church
PredestinationReligious theory of John Calvin that claimed that God determined at birth whether some one would achieve salvation or not
Theocracya government where religious leaders are in control
John CalvinFrench Reformation leader who founded the theory of Predestination and established a strict theocracy in Switzerland
Heny VIIIEnglish King who brought the reformation to England by dismissing the Pope's authority
Anglican Churchname for the new church formed and led by Henry VIII when he broke from the Catholic Church
Hapsburg Familypowerful ruling family in Europe who were strong supporters of the catholic church
The Thirty Years' WarConflict in Europe that began in Germany and was fought between German Protestant and Catholic nobles
Elizabeth IDaughter of Henry VIII, English queen who re-established the Anglican Church in England and led England through the reformation
Huguenotsname given to Protestants in France
Edict of Nantesissued by King Henry IV of France to give the Huguenots religious freedom
Cardinal RichelieuFrench leader who revoked the Edict of Nantes and joined the Protestant side in the 30 years' war
Catholic Counter Reformationseries of reforms made by the Catholic Church to try to gain/keep followers
Jesuits (society of Jesus)Catholic goup of priests who taught and spread Catholicism throughout the world
Council of Trentmeeting of Catholic leaders to attempt to reform Catholic Doctrine
Inquisitionestablished by the Catholic Church to enforce their doctrine
Ignatiusfounder of the Society of Jesus
Simonythe selling of church position
St. Bartholomew's day massacremajor episode of violence against Huguenots in France
John WycliffeEnglish reformer who came before Martin Luther known for translating the Bible into English
Jan HussRefomrer prior to Luther who criticized the Catholic church and was burned at the stake for his religious beliefs.
Johannes Gutenberginventor of the printing press
Printing Pressnew invention that helped increase literacy and spread ideas
Spanish armadamassive fleet of ships sent to try to force Catholic beliefs on England. It was defeated in 1588 allowing England to remain protestant and continue to grow in power.
Islammonotheistic religion closely connected to Judaism and Christianity that believes Muhammad is Allah's (God's) most important prophet. It is based in the Middle East but has spread to N. Africa and parts of Asia
MonotheismBelief in one god
TorahThe holy book of Judaism, it makes up the first 5 books of the old testament
Judaismthe original monotheistic religion, it is the foundation for both Christianity and Islam.
Israelarea where judaism first developed it would become holy land for Christianity and Islam also
Koranthe holy book of Islam
Muhammadaccording to Islam h is god's most important prophet and the founder of Islam
The 5 pillars of Islamthe basic duties of every follower of Islam.
Buddhismreligion/philosophy that began in India and spread to Asia and SE Asia.
Nirvanathe state of enlightenment (or state of no desires) that is the goal for Buddhists to reach
Siddhartha Guatamaaka The Buddha, he is the philosopher who founded Buddhism
HinduismIndian religion based on ending a cycle of re-birth and re-uniting with the universal spirit
Renaissanceliterally it means "re-birth," and refers to the time period in which people started to re-focus on classical Greek and Roman ideas, and also began focusing heavily on art and education
The MediciThe ruling family of Florence they were some of the greatest patrons of the renaissance era.
Michelangelo Bounarrotigreat renaissance artist who sculpted "the David" and painted the vault of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Leonardo Da Vincigreat renaissance man whose artistic achievements include the "Mona Lisa" and "the last supper."
Humanismrenaissance philosophy that focused on the individual worth of humans, and believed that people should expect some earthly comforts.
Christianityreligion based on the life and teachings of Jesus, closely related to Judaism
New Testamentholy book for Christians that details the teacings of Jesus.
Cultural Diffusionthe spread of ideas from one place to another
Erasmusauthor of the "Praise of Folly" a humanist work tht criticized the church
ShakespeareEnglish renaissance writer, famous for his plays and sonnets
Sonnets14 line poems developed by Petrarch that were popular during the renaissance
Essayshort writings were he author specifically states his point of view
Silk roadsseries of trade routes between Asia and the Mediterranean Basin
Monsoonseasonal winds in the Indian Ocean that impacted trade in that area
Marco PoloTrader from Venice believed to have traveled to China and recorded his journey
Silk road map
Trans-saharan trade route map
Michelangelo's "DAVID"
Da Vinci's "MONA LISA"
Mughal India Map
Ottoman Empire Map
Da Vinci's "LAST SUPPER"

World History I Teacher
Glen Allen High School

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